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Synopses of papers

The following are synopses of papers and working cost/operational reports published in the Power Engineer from 1997 to date.

Volume 28 Issue 1  December 2024 Paper 656

Prospects for nuclear energy in the UK

Kathryn Porter, Watt Logic

The UK Government’s commitment to nuclear power has strengthened significantly in recent years as concerns over energy security have risen, due to the uncertainty created by the Russian invasion of Ukraine, and a growing realisation of the risks posed by a reliance on renewable generation. Nuclear power has no carbon dioxide emissions in operation and, unlike wind and solar power, is not intermittent.

However, while this is superficially positive, the Government is still too tentative in its ambitions. It intends to see one new large-scale nuclear power station reach its Final Investment Decision by the end of this Parliament (likely to be in 2024), but the only contender is Sizewell C, a reactor of a type that it’s developer, EDF, has struggled to deliver elsewhere. At the same time, most of the existing fleet of nuclear reactors is scheduled to close by March 2028, leaving only Sizewell B running until the opening of the reactor at Hinkley Point C, now expected in September 2028.

The Government has shown an interest in small modular reactors (SMRs) and advanced modular reactors, with a particular focus in recent years on high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, which could be suitable for a range of industrial applications, including the production of hydrogen.

However, none is expected to enter service before the next decade and – so far – only one SMR design, from Rolls-Royce, has begun the process to license its design in the UK.

Volume 27 Issue 5  December 2023 Paper 655

Time to accept that wind farm costs are not falling

Kathryn Porter, Watt Logic

There has been a consistent narrative that the cost of building new windfarms is falling, with falling subsidy prices being offered as evidence. I have challenged this narrative in the past, pointing out that evidence from the accounts of windfarms themselves does not support this argument, citing the work of Professor Gordon Hughes at the University of Edinburgh, and indeed his work as subsequently been replicated by Andrew Montford of the Global Warming Policy Foundation (“GWPF”). However, there is another big reason to question this narrative: turbine manufacturers are losing money hand over fist.

Falling subsidy prices at the same time as massive manufacturing losses makes no sense and is clearly not sustainable. Of all of the projects that secured Contracts for Difference (“CfD”) agreements in the most recent subsidy round, known as AR4, only two have actually taken their Final Investment Decision (“FID”) – ScottishPower’s East Anglia 4 project, and Moray West which is a joint venture between EDP Renewables and ENGIE. Ørsted has warned that Hornsea 3 could be at risk without Government action “to maintain the attractiveness of the investment environment”. It has said it will make its final investment decision later this year.

Volume 27 Issue 3  August  2023 Paper 654

2023 Operational Report

Volume 27 Issue 4  September 2023 Paper 653

Synergy Study - Heat Recovery from hydrogen Production

Corresponding Author: Guy Robertson, Co-Authors: Emily Agus/Amey Karnik/Dan King/Lisa Pardini/Aimilios Spinoulas, The Energy Governance Partnership (

Globally, governments and industry are becomining increasingly aware that hydrogen has an important role to play in delivering carbon reduction ambitions and net zero targets.  Indeed the UK’s Hydrogen Strategy1 suggests that 250–460TWh of hydrogen could be needed by 2050. Making up to 35% of the UK’s final energy consumption, the primary role of this hydrogen would be to displace natural gas in parts of the energy system, and/or to act as an energy storage medium.

Within the context of net zero, hydrogen production processes comprise: Green hydrogen production; and, Blue hydrogen production.

Such hydrogen production processes produce substantial quantities of waste heat and, to date, very little attention has been given to this significant by-product, and the opportunities it presents.

In March 2021, Ramboll Energy was appointed by the Embassy of Denmark to undertake a synergy study assessing the potential links between future hydrogen production and associated waste heat recovery for use in district heating/heat network applications.

The key objectives of the synergy study were to:

Create a vision for waste heat recovery from hydrogen production; Highlight potential investment opportunities; and,

Re-capture and solidify wider interest in waste heat recovery.

Building on inspiration from Europe, particularly Denmark, the synergy study focussed on the UK based on an ambitious programme for developing both hydrogen and district heating/heat network infrastructure.

Volume 27 Issue 2  June 2023 Paper 652

'Greening' a Country: UK Energy Use Scenarios and Considerations

Pericles Pilidis, Uyioghosa Igie, Vishal Sethi, Suresh Sampath and Theoklis Nikolaidis - Cranfield University

There is an emerging consensus that to decarbonise human activities, a wide range of economic sectors need to coordinate and integrate their efforts.  The authors propose that, as part of this process, these efforts need to be examined strategically at a very high level.  An attempt in this direction is offered in the present analysis.  The unit to decarbonise has been chosen to be the United Kingdom, a major economy and the professional residence of the authors. Official country-level energy statistics were compiled, integrated, converted and collated to permit such an exercise. These statistics are comprised of detailed information about energy consumption in different sectors.  Some inconsistencies and uncertainties were bridged with reasonable assumptions and projections.  This information provided a useful basis on which to examine replacement scenarios to decarbonise. Although there is an element of speculation and uncertainty in the results, several major relevant observations and conclusions emerge. It is assumed that the transport requirements are covered by hydrogen and electricity. Also, for civil aviation and the first generation of hydrogen airliners, 85% of conventional fuel will be replaced by liquid hydrogen. Six scenarios were examined based on varying combinations of increasing renewable systems, nuclear energy, gas turbine engines and combinations of these. The analysis shows that aviation will be the largest consumer of hydrogen. In an extreme renewable expansion, hydrogen-fuelled gas turbines can play an important role in matching supply and demand, and that carbon capture and storage will play an important role. The primary conclusion is the large increase (four to five times) in electricity demand, where a significant fraction, 35 to 40%, will be devoted to the production of hydrogen.  

Volume 27 Issue 1  March 2023 Paper 651

The value of flexible fuel mixing in hydrogen-fueled gas turbines – a techno-economic study

Simon Öberg, Mikael Odenbergera, Filip Johnsson

In electricity systems mainly supplied with variable renewable electricity (VRE), the variable generation must be balanced. Hydrogen as an energy carrier, combined with storage, has the ability to shift electricity generation in time and thereby support the electricity system. The aim of this work is to analyse the competitiveness of hydrogen-fueled gas turbines, including both open and combined cycles, with flexible fuel mixing of hydrogen and biomethane in zero-carbon emissions electricity systems. The work applies a techno-economic optimisation model to future European electricity systems with high shares of VRE.

The results show that the most competitive gas turbine option is a combined cycle configuration that is capable of handling up to 100% hydrogen, fed with various mixtures of hydrogen and biomethane. The results also indicate that the endogenously calculated hydrogen cost rarely exceeds 5 €/kgH2 when used in gas turbines, and that a hydrogen cost of 3–4 €/ kgH2 is, for most of the scenarios investigated, competitive. Furthermore, the results show that hydrogen gas turbines are more competitive in wind-based energy systems, as compared to solar-based systems, in that the fluctuations of the electricity generation in the former are fewer, more irregular and of longer duration. Thus, it is the characteristics of an energy system, and not necessarily the cost of hydrogen, that determine the competitiveness of hydrogen gas turbines.

Volume 26 Issue 5  December  2022 Paper 650

Synchronous Condensers with Flywheel for supporting power grid inertia: achievements and experience after first year of commercial operation

Roberto Biondi, Mauro Priano

Synchronous condensers with directly coupled flywheel play a key role to maintain high voltage grid stability and power quality with the continuous increase of renewable sources and consequent shutting down of conventional power plants.

In response to dedicated commercial contracts to provide grid stability services with Italian Transmission System Operator, TERNA Rete Italia, Ansaldo Energia developed, manufactured, and installed 8 Synchronous Condensers with under vacuum flywheel (1750 MJ inertia each) for Synchronous Condenser plants realized in cooperation with ABB/Hitachi Power Grid.

At present day, five of these units are in commercial operation, depending on their execution stage, they are monitored on site or remotely by Ansaldo Energia personnel.

This article, after a brief description of flywheel design and of the experience gained during the erection, commissioning, and operation of these synchronous condensing plants presents the Synchronous Condenser plus Under Vacuum Flywheel solution made by Ansaldo Energia as a reliable and already available technology for the energy transition and beyond.Volume 26 Issue 3 August  2022 Paper 649

2020 Operational Report.

Volume 26 Issue 4  August  2022 Paper 649

2021 Operational Report

Volume 26 Issue 4 September  2022 Paper 648

30 MW Heavy Fuel Burning Diesel Power Plant, Mollendo, Peru

Colin W Dawson

Mollendo is in Southern Peru, situated on the Pacific Coast.  The closest major city is Arequipa, connected by road to Mollendo, the journey taking approximately two hours. The closest seaport is Matarani, which is only a short distance from Mollendo.  The electrical power utility serving this area is Empresa De Generacion Electrica De Arequipa S.A. (EGASA) who has their head offices in Arequipa; they generate power for domestic and industrial use, including several mining operations.

This paper describes the technology utilised in the engine design, and in the associated systems design, which was considered state-of-the-art at the time of construction, in order to ensure the highest possible reliability, fuel efficiency and user friendliness.  The design incorporates the expertise gained by Mirrlees Blackstone over the 50 years they have been involved in supplying heavy fuel burning medium speed diesel engines, for both power generation and marine propulsion.

Volume 26 Issue 2  June  2022 Paper 647

Demonstration of the benefits of SAE 30 stationary gas engine oil in full scale engine tests

Thijs Schasfoort and Zoe Fard, Petro-Canada Lubricants, a subsidiary of HF Sinclair

Torsten Gehrmann and Steffen Hollatz, MAN Truck & Bus SE, Germany

This paper evaluates the benefits of an SAE 30 monograde stationary gas engine oil (SGEO) in comparison with SAE 40 monograde SGEOs with the focus on two main areas. First, to demonstrate and quantify the positive impact of lower viscosity on the fuel consumption rate, and second to demonstrate the faster lubrication of hard to reach points in the engine during startup. The current industry recognised fuel efficiency test methods for passenger car and on-road diesel engine sectors are not suitable for evaluating the fuel efficiency performance of a gas engine oil because of the significant differences in fuel type, engine operating conditions, and oil formulations. This paper, therefore, describes comparative studies of three different gas engine oils in a modern MAN E3262 E302 gas engine that was carefully adapted and fully instrumented. The performance of each oil with respect to fuel efficiency was assessed in an extensive program comprising endurance testing, stationary tests on various load/speed points and dynamic tests running the engine fired as well as non-fired (motored).

Another part of the test program explores the lubrication of hard to reach points in the engine, e.g. valve guide. The paper describes how the SAE 30 monograde oil results in faster lubrication of these parts during startup in comparison with the SAE 40 oils.

Keywords: Stationary gas engine oil, viscosity, SAE 30, fuel efficiency, start-up lubrication, wear reduction

Volume 26 Issue 1  March  2022 Paper 646

GT Air Intake Filtration - Filtration Reliability Vs Filters’ Life

Gianluca de Arcangelis FAIST Anlagenbau Gmbh

Gas Turbine Air Intake Filtration (AIF hereafter) has become a popular topic in view of the asset and performance costs resulting by letting dirt, solubles, corrosive and erosive particles through to the compressor and to the GT hot parts.

Extensive research has been conducted and many papers have been written on the topic of GT AIF with reference to the available standards En779-2002, En779-2012, ISO16890 and ISO29463. However, as we see following, these standards bear shortcomings.

Volume 25 Issue 5  December  2021 Paper 645

Green House Gas Emission Reduction and Extension of Facility Life of a Power Plant – Exemplified at a Brownfield Gas Turbine Installation

 R. Krewinkel, S. Theis, B. Ćosić, T. Pöhler, S. Parzigas MAN Energy Solutions SE, Oberhausen, Germany, S. Mombeck, evo AG, Oberhausen, Germany

Constraints and regulations in terms of environmental aspects, like emissions, as well as fuel costs and the lack of flexibility can make the operation of older simple cycle gas turbine or co-generation plants less attractive. Also, the power demand may have changed considerably since the installation of the current core engine, making the plant over- or under-sized. The costs of the actual power generation equipment or the core engine represent only a fraction of the total costs of a power plant. Furthermore, if the core engine is a gas turbine, the auxiliary equipment, waste heat recovery unit etc. have a lifetime that exceeds that of the turbine by far. These factors can lead to a situation in which the operator would like to replace solely the gas turbine with as few modifications to the existing infrastructure as possible.

The path to a decision for such a refurbishment predominantly based on anticipated future challenges in power generation and the demand for enhanced fuel-flexibility, shall be exemplified based on a case study for a German local utility. Here, after a feasibility study, one aero-derivate gas turbine with an ISO power output of 25.5MWel was replaced by a newer MGT8000 industrial gas turbine with an ISO power output of approx. 9MWel. The new turbine is fitted into a brownfield site and existing peripheral equipment and ducting are utilized to the highest possible extent. The required modernisations and rework as well as the resulting challenges up to and including commissioning shall be discussed. First operating experiences shall be reported as well.

A brief outlook on possible (co-) firing of hydrogen or other gases and the necessary adaptations to the newly installed gas turbine for these fuels shall be provided.

Volume 25 Issue 3  August  2021 Paper 644

2020 Operational Report

Volume 25 Issue 4  September  2021 Paper 643

The Development and Introduction of High Temperature Optical Pressure Sensors in Gas Turbine Combustion Monitoring Applications

Ian Macafee Oxsensis Ltd

The increasing demands made on lower emissions, fuel and load flexible combustion systems continue to challenge engine architectures and instrumentation systems.  Direct mount high temperature combustion stability sensors are needed, and these are being integrated into gas turbine control systems, to allow machines to reliably operate Dry Low Emissions (DLE) systems within progressively tightening standards. Some engine OEMs and customers wish to move away from waveguide (indirect) measurement systems.

Oxsensis addressed this by applying Fabry-Perot optical interferometry techniques and creating robust, high temperature sensor structures which were linked with light management techniques and components from the optical telecommunications industry. This means that pressure- sensitive ceramic optical structures are non-electrically fibre- connected to an opto-electronics card and this arrangement replaces piezo-electric or piezo-resistive electrical instrumentation chains. Oxsensis managed the design and development to solve key technical risks including front end material selection and mechanical design, thermal shock, vibration sensitivity, process design, and opto-electronic systems integration. Oxsensis has demonstrated progress in Optical pressure sensing in gas turbine applications including the direct benefits of close coupled sensors in lieu of remote sensing using sensing lines or ‘waveguides’.

Volume 25 Issue 2  June  2021 Paper 642

Examination of carbon-neutral fuels for utility-scale power generation

Terry Raddings GE Power,UK, Jeffrey Goldmeer GE Power Schenectady, NY US

The increased focus worldwide on reducing carbon emissions from power generation assets has led to remarkable rates of renewables installation. As these energy sources make up a growing portion of the landscape, challenges arise in balancing the electrical grid given the intermittent nature of renewables and their lack of storage capability.

To reduce strain on systems, gas turbine units are ready now provide reliable, dispatchable power to the grid in a dense footprint and deliver low or zero-carbon electricity. By leveraging alternative fuels that generate less or no carbon emissions from combustion, such as synthetic methane, renewable (bio) fuels, and hydrogen (H2), gas turbines serve a critical role in the power transformation currently underway.  

New units and the existing installed base can run on a variety of fuel blends, with 100% H2 fuels resulting in carbon-free operation. This paper outlines the global drivers, challenges, and opportunities for hydrogen-based fuels in power generation and how GE’s turbine technology and unparalleled fuel expertise provides a clear framework for implementation in a decarbonized energy future.

Volume 25 Issue 2  June  2021 Paper 641

Optimising the UK’s shift to a Renewable-powered Economy

Ville Rimali, Jyrki Leino Wärtsilä Energy

This report shows what is possible to achieve by 2030 based on current policy ambitions and the technical constraints and market structures that govern the UK energy system today. The UK can go further, faster. New developments we know are coming this decade – from electric vehicles to electric heating – will transform our energy system. They will also require more power and more flexibility to ensure the system can balance new supply and demand as millions of “batteries on wheels” are connected.

Flexibility is the key to unlocking higher levels of renewables in the next 10 years and enabling a pathway to a net-zero energy system by 2050 or before.

Volume 25 Issue 1  March  2021 Paper 640

The Effect of Compressor Degradation on the Optimised Divestment Schedule of an Intercooled Gas Turbine Utilising Associated Gas

M Obhuo, R Douglas, D Aziaka, D Igbong, I Obhuo, A Oyeniran, P Pilidis

Associated gas flaring has not only amounted to compounding environmental problems but has also resulted in huge economic loss. Due to the rich methane content of this fuel resource, it is a viable source of fuel for energy generation using gas turbines. This study presents a model and methodology which would serve as a guide while evaluating the impact of degradation on the divestment of redundant units of the LMS100 gas turbine engine and the economic utilisation of associated gas.

The Cranfield University performance simulation tool, TURBOMATCH was used in modelling hypothetical but realistic intercooled gas turbine engines. Economic models were generated by implementing the performance results in three degradation scenarios within the Techno-Economic and Environmental Risk Assessment (TERA) framework. Optimised divestment schedule results from Genetic algorithm showed that degradation delays the divestment time of redundant intercooled engines. This implies that the level of compressor degradation is directly proportional to the divestment time.

Volume 25 Issue 1 March  2021 Paper 639

An Operational Report on 30 months of Battery Electric Vehicle usage in the UK

Alison and Trevor Owen

This Institution was founded in 1913 to exchange operational data and experience with a new technology which happened to be a diesel engine. This paper follows in that tradition by providing feedback for those considering the use of a battery powered vehicle or for those who have already adopted such technology.

Many governments are incentivising the use of electric vehicles as a part of an ongoing campaign to reduce car emissions. In driving away from a dealership in an electric vehicle there are many aspects of ownership and usage which are not generally covered by instruction manuals or dealership handover routines and are only gained by experience.

This article covers the experience gained across both technical and commercial fronts by two Chartered Engineers and represent personal views as opposed to those of any manufacturer or supplier. Whilst the experience and feedback relate to one make of BEV operating in the UK many of the issues raised could apply to any make of BEV in any location.

Volume 24 Issue 4 December  2020 Paper 638

Review of opportunities for gas turbine generators in the changing electricity system of the United Kingdom

Steve Nutt

In line with national and international recognition that global warming is the result of human activity1 , in recent years renewable generation technology is increasingly replacing fossil fuelled generation.  For practical and economic reasons this results in an increased use of power electronics to connect these new energy sources to the grid network, with a consequential reduction in the amount of synchronous generation connected to the grid.  

The effect of this change is twofold, firstly a reduction in network fault levels, with synchronous generation typically contributing about three times their rating to the local network whereas the newer technologies contributing little more than their own rating.  Secondly, the stored energy (or inertia) of the network is also reduced, with synchronous generation typically contributing between about three and five times rating whereas, in the event of system disturbances, the newer technologies only contribution is small, due to the decoupling effects of the interfacing convertors.  

These same observations apply with respect to HVDC submarine links which, although extremely useful with respect interconnecting the grid networks of adjacent land masses, i.e. Great Britain to Ireland and Great Britain to Continental Europe, due to their high capital costs they tend to be fully utilised in either one direction or the other, with little evidence to date of their potential to provide fast support to a distressed grid being utilised.   

Volume 24 Issue 3 September  2020 Paper 637

Development of Hydrogen and Natural Gas Co-Firing Gas Turbine

Kenji Miyamoto, Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems, Ltd (MHPS)
Co-Authors: Kei Inoue (MHI), Tomo Kawakami, Sosuke Nakamura, Satoshi Tanimura, Junichiro Masada

The introduction of hydrogen energy is an effective option to obtain sustainable development of economic activity while helping prevent global warming.

The Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. (MHI) Group is promoting research and development of a large gas turbine with hydrogen and natural gas co-firing capabilities. This effort is supported by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO).

With a newly developed combustor, a 30vol% of hydrogen co-firing test has been successfully completed. This co-firing capability results in a reduction in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of 10% when compared to conventional natural gas thermal power plant.

Volume 24 Issue 2 June 2020 Paper 636

The Benefits of LPG as the Fuel for Decentralised Power Generation

Michael Welch, Siemens Energy

While Western Europe and parts of North America concentrate on deep decarbonization and net zero carbon emissions from power generation by 2050 or earlier, much of the rest of the world faces a different problem: access to secure, affordable electricity.

In the modern world, electricity is essential for economic growth and for improving the quality of life. With limited or no grid infrastructures in many places – and over 1 billion people still without access to any electricity – islands, rural towns and cities and related industries have relied on their own decentralized power generation. Traditionally these power plants rely on diesel or heavy fuel oil, two of the most polluting fuels with high CO2 emissions and high levels of pollutant emissions, which contribute to the premature deaths of close to 4 million people per year globally due to poor air quality.

While renewables are being developed globally, these schemes on a small scale rarely solve two parts of the energy trilemma: they may be good for the environment, but the affordability is questionable due to the high initial investment costs, and they do not provide security of supply.

LPG-fuelled gas turbine-based decentralized power generation can address all these major issues. Not only is LPG a clean burning fuel with a low carbon footprint, but it is also competitively priced, readily available, easily transportable and simple to store. The advent of bioLPG will further enhance its credentials as a bridging fuel to natural gas and a zero-carbon future. Decentralized power generation using LPG can thus help achieve greater electrification globally, bringing affordable secure power and helping to improve the quality of life for tens of millions of people across the globe.        

Volume 24 Issue 1 March 2020 Paper 635

Replanting of King’s Lynn CCGT - Flexible operation and extended life

Hassan Joudi, Ryan Broughton – WSP UK

The King’s Lynn CCGT Replant project during 2017-19 included the replacement of a Siemens V94.3 gas turbine, with a new Siemens SGT5-4000F (version 7) gas turbine. With the original plant designed for baseload operation, the replant project objectives included improving the plant’s output, flexibility, efficiency and reliability to enable two-shifting operation to better meet the changing demands of the UK electricity market, whilst also giving a further 15-20 years life extension and reducing the plant’s environmental emissions. The capital investment required was significantly lower than an equivalent new build plant of the same capacity.

WSP, in collaboration with Centrica, and with the support of Siemens, carried out a feasibility assessment of the project. This involved comparing original design conditions versus potential upgraded performance and the intended future operating regime. Using a risk based, value engineering approach, modifications and refurbishment work were identified for the steam turbine, generator and Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). The result is a plant which has significantly shorter start-up (cold, warm, hot) and shutdown times and higher load ramp rates in a wider load range and which reuses existing infrastructure.

Volume 23 Issue 5 December 2019 Paper 634 (Heritage Paper)

Rootes TS3 opposed piston two stroke diesel engine

Trevor Owen

An article on the Rootes/Commer/Tilling-Stevens TS3 engine range was first published in the Power Engineer in 2008 as part of a series of heritage papers designed to record the history of various engine makes and specific types. This resulted in contact being made with IDGTE during 2019 which provided further detailed information on the engine history. The feedback reaffirmed ongoing active interest in this engine range in New Zealand with fully refurbished and new engines being available. The article has been revised and extended to incorporate the additional information and photographs.

Volume 23 Issue 5 December 2019 Paper 633

The impact of Electric Turbo Compounding on Gas Genset CO2, VOC & greenhouse emissions

Keith Douglas, Head of Performance Engineering, Bowman Power

This paper explores the ramifications from the current increase in wide scale adoption of gas powered gensets for power generation, including the associated rise in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

By exploring the use of a novel waste heat recovery system, we demonstrate how reducing Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions can reduce fuel costs, reduce GHG emissions and prepare organisations for forthcoming legislation. This includes an analysis of the four main sources of VOC emissions on gas gensets, their effects and how these can be reduced through adoption of Electric Turbo Compounding (ETC) technology (see figure 1).

Further supporting evidence is shown covering the results of field measurements from trials of the waste heat recovery system across three gensets running three different fuel types. A feasible operating map is included to help guide the reader on where the system can be applied and future potential for the technology.

Volume 23 Issue 4 July 2019 Paper 632

Operational Report 2018

Volume 23 Issue 3 October 2019 Paper 631

Decarbonizing power generation through the use of hydrogen as a gas turbine fuel

Michael Welch, Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery Ltd.

The power generation industry has a major role to play in reducing global greenhouse gas emissions, and carbon dioxide (CO2) in particular. There are two ways to reduce CO2 emissions from power generation: improved conversion efficiency of fuel into electrical energy, and switching to lower carbon content fuels.

Gas turbine generator sets, whether in open cycle, combined cycle or cogeneration configuration, offer some of the highest efficiencies possible across a wide range of power outputs. With natural gas, the fossil fuel with the lowest carbon content, as the primary fuel, they produce among the lowest CO2 emissions per kWh generated. It is possible though to decarbonize power generation further by using the fuel flexibility of the gas turbine to fully or partially displace natural gas used with hydrogen. As hydrogen is a zero carbon fuel, it offers the opportunity for gas turbines to produce zero carbon electricity. As an energy carrier, hydrogen is an ideal candidate for long-term or seasonal storage of renewable energy, while the gas turbine is an enabler for a zero carbon power generation economy.

Hydrogen, while the most abundant element in the Universe, does not exist in its elemental state in nature, and producing hydrogen is an energy-intensive process. This paper looks at the different methods by which hydrogen can be produced, the impact on CO2 emissions from power generation by using pure hydrogen or hydrogen/natural gas blends, and how the economics of power generation using hydrogen compare with today’s state of the art technologies and carbon capture. This paper also addresses the issues surrounding the combustion of hydrogen in gas turbines, historical experience of gas turbines operating on high hydrogen fuels, and examines future developments to optimize combustion emissions.

Volume 23 Issue 2 June 2019 Paper 630

Early Hydro-Electric Power Plants at Niagara

Mike Raine

Volume 23 Issue 1 March 2019 Paper 629

Hybrid trigeneration concepts for power, steam and hot water production

Karim Saidi, Hajo Hoops, Ulrich Orth and Sven-Hendrik Wiers

The Cogeneration systems are well known as highly efficient solutions with high savings, low costs in operation and very interesting flexibility. This important flexibility enables covering the daily fluctuations of power and heat demands.

In order to increase the efficiency, the flexibility and the economic benefits, some advanced cogeneration solutions are introduced. It is defined as the combination of Gas Turbines, Gas engines and also Batteries. These solutions are named Hybrid Cogenerations systems.

The technical and economical evaluations of the Hybrid cogeneration systems are for power, steam and hot water productions. The study compares the performances of Hybrid concepts and the standard solutions. This study uses gas turbines and gas engines of the MAN Energy solutions portfolio.

Volume 23 Issue 1 March 2019 Paper 628

The development, history and future of the industrial gas turbine: Part 2 - The update

Ronald Hunt

The first part of this paper was published by IDGTE in the 2011 Paper 582 [120] and this covered the first fifty years of the industrial gas turbine from 1939-1999.  Part II brings the story up to date and includes developments up to 2017, the charts having been brought up to date. This account of the history of the industrial gas turbine documents the development of gas turbines for power generation, off-shore, locomotive, marine and other land based applications.  A key part of preparing this history has been the documentation of manufacturers and gas turbine models produced each year since 1940.  The aircraft engine is generally excluded from the scope of the work and only referred to, in so far as it is related to the development of industrial gas turbines whilst aero-derivative turbines are included.

The author gratefully acknowledges the permission to publish the material provided, photographs, data, encouragement and assistance of all the companies and organisations referred to.  Sincere thanks and appreciation is given to the many individual contributors for this work and all who have given significant support to the work and generously given of their time and experience, providing data and reference material thus making this historical account possible and full of past experiences.  

This paper is a shortened version of the full history which the author is currently having published as a book.

Volume 22 Issue 4 December 2018 Paper 627

The RWE Developed System for Monitoring of Gas Turbine Air Intake Filtration Performance including Site Test Results

John Macdonald, RWE Generation UK

Compressor fouling occurs when there is unfavourable air quality and low efficiency

inlet air filters. The impact on the gas turbine is reduced efficiency and output.

Historically the GT OEM installed standard filters regardless of the local air quality and

the Operator tried alternatives through a trial and error process that took years. This

was made difficult as suppliers claimed filter efficiencies that could not be verified.

RWE, in partnership with Veotec, developed a portable system capable of sampling the

air quality across each stage of filtration in-situ and measuring the number and size of

particles in each sample.

The equipment was installed at an RWE CCGT and air

quality and filtration efficiency was determined. From these measurements and

performance data, a revised filter configuration was developed, installed and tested at

site. This was carried out in less than two years. This paper describes the issue, the

new equipment and the site test results.

Volume 22 Issue 3 September 2018 Paper 626

Charles A Parsons and the Gas Turbine: A Contribution to the History of the Industrial Gas Turbine

John Bolter, Newcastle upon Tyne

Volume 22 Issue 3 September 2018 Paper 625

MAN industrial gas turbines for clean and flexible power - solutions for international power generation markets

Robert Krewinkel, Ulrich Orth, Detlef Viereck and Sven-Hendrick Wiers

The development of gas turbines for smaller power ranges is currently driven by the trend towards decarbonization, the move towards decentralized power generation with combined heat and power (CHP) applications as well as high operational flexibility regarding the choice of fuel and variation of power output to compensate for the fluctuations of power generation due to the increased use of renewable sources.

This paper will deal with MAN industrial gas turbines for the 6 MW class, the MGT6000, which provide clean and flexible power for such challenging requirements. These engines are available as a single-shaft version for electric power generation, optimized for CHP applications, as well as a two-shaft version for mechanical drives.

Technical design features such as the Advance Can Combustor (ACC) Technology for very low NOx and CO emissions and the use of additive manufactured (AM) components will be highlighted. In addition results of extended testing of the gas turbine driving an electric generator, which was conducted to investigate the transient behaviour of the MGT6000, will be presented.

Apart from these technical features of the gas turbines, solutions for the international power generation market will be discussed. CHP applications for different industries will be presented and the benefit of digital services such as life monitoring of machine data or trend analysis of operational data will be demonstrated.

Volume 22 Issue 2 June 2018 Paper 624

Optimizing The Performance Of A 500kW Diesel Generator: Impact Of The Eo-Synchro Concept On Fuel Consumption And Greenhouse Gases

Mohamad Issa, Jean Fiset, Mohammadjavad Mobarra ,Hussein Ibrahim, Adrian Ilinca

The power generation for many remote areas such as telecommunications infrastructures, mining facilities and isolated residential areas, is historically ensured with Diesel engine generators. The economical cost of energy is therefore very high not only due to inherent cost of fuel but also due to transportation and maintenance costs. The environmental cost of energy is also high as the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation is a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions. On the other hand, the shipping industry is under great pressure to reduce its environmental impact. If no measures are taken,  emissions are projected to increase 50-250% by 2050, while the Paris convention requires a significant reduction to achieve 2oC global warming target. Moreover shipping already contributes to 15% of the global  emissions, which is also projected to increase if no measures are taken.

In  previous work, we have explored and evaluated a new technique based on the Eo-Synchro concept to reduce fuel consumption and minimize the unit cost of electricity; a general savings of 7% of fuel consumption was found when the Eo-Synchro concept was applied on a 75KW Diesel Generator (DG). As a continuity of these previous works, experimental tests have been carried out on a 500KW DG to evaluate the performance of fuel consumption and gaseous emission characteristics when the Eo-Synchro concept is applied.

The experimental results show a significant fuel saving up to 15% can be obtained at low power loads and up to 5% at high power loads. On the other hand, the emission of nitrogen oxides (Nox) and of carbon dioxide (CO2) are 5,8% lower when the Eo-Synchro concept is used. The results for the other emissions are also shown in the figures and tables. Based on our results, an assessment of fuel savings and greenhouse gases reduction is presented for an off-grid mine site located in the Canadian North. A savings of 4% on fuel consumption and GHG emissions has been registered at high power loads.

Volume 22 Issue 2 June 2018 Paper 623

Upgrading Combined Heat and Power Generation Plant at Thames Water Mogden Sewage Treatment Works

David Linsell, Thames Water

This paper describes the work in 2016 to install 3 x 2MWe biogas combined heat and power (CHP) generators at Mogden Sewage Treatment Works (STW).  These were to replace the 4 x 2.4 MWe dual fuel engines installed in the early 1990s.  The current project was achieved in good order despite the challenges provided by limited space, an operational site, a new to Thames Water contracting strategy and the regulatory deadline imposed by closure of the Renewable Obligations Certificate (ROC) regime.

This paper follows on from an IDGTE Technical Visit to Mogden STW in October 2016.  The paper includes a summary of Sludge Processing by Thames Water, operations at Mogden STW, the Mogden CHP Project, the Thames Water CHP fleet and maintenance and some future developments.

CHP has been part of the Thames Water, and its predecessors, business at Mogden since 1936.  In the 1980s the state of CHP developments across Thames Water were presented papers in the IDGTE journals written by the late Harry Maurer:

Paper 458 - CHP Installation in Medium Sewage Treatment Works
                           H F Maurer

Paper 483 - Small Scale Combined Heat & Power Plants in Thames Water Provinces
                           H F Maurer

Volume 22 Issue 1 March 2018 Paper 622

A Brief Review of Condition Monitoring Techniques for Gas Turbines

Yu Zhang

Gas turbines have played a key role in aeronautical industry, power generation and as mechanical drives for pumps and compressors. To monitor the efficiency and reliability of gas turbines, the employment and improvement of a remote condition monitoring and fault diagnostic system is of great importance. This paper introduces a scheme of condition monitoring for gas turbines, including sensor validation, steady-state and transient operation discrimination, and novelty or fault detection. Moreover, the methodologies are categorised as knowledge-based rules, signal processing-based techniques and model-based approaches. Among them, model-based approaches further take account of white-box, black-box and grey-box modelling techniques. The strengths and weaknesses of the methods are discussed, and future work in this research area is also recommended.

Keywords: Gas turbine; condition monitoring; fault diagnosis; signal processing; grey-box modelling.

Volume 22 Issue 1 March 2018 Paper 621

Using the fuel flexibility of Gas Turbines to decarbonise Power Generation

Michael Welch, Siemens AG

The power generation industry has a major role to play in reducing global greenhouse gas emissions, and carbon dioxide (CO2) in particular. There are two fundamental ways to reduce CO2 emissions from power generation: improved conversion efficiency of fuel into electrical energy, and switching  to fuels with lower carbon contents.

Gas turbine generator sets, whether in open cycle, combined cycle or cogeneration configuration, offer some of the highest efficiencies possible across a wide range of power outputs. With natural gas, the fossil fuel with the lowest carbon content, as the primary fuel, they produce among the lowest CO2 emissions per kWh generated. It is though possible to decarbonise power generation further by making use of the fuel flexibility of the gas turbine, by fully or partially displacing the natural gas used, or by switching to lower carbon fuels such as propane or LPG in place of diesel and fuel oils.

In a number of industries, an off-gas containing hydrocarbons is produced which is often flared, creating CO2 emissions. These off-gases can be used to generate power locally in decentralised   power plants, displacing the need to import power from centralised fossil fuel power plant and thus decreasing global CO2 emissions. Alternatively, ‘surplus’ renewable power generation can be used to create hydrogen, which can be stored and used as a gas turbine fuel when renewable power   generation is low, displacing all or a percentage of the fossil fuel used. As hydrogen is a zero carbon fuel, it offers the opportunity for gas turbines to produce zero carbon electricity.

This paper examines the potential to use a wide range of unconventional low carbon fuels and hydrogen in industrial gas turbines, and reviews operational experience gained in various industries and the future potential developments for further decarbonisation of power generation.

Volume 21 Issue 4 December 2017 Paper 620

Modeling And Optimization Of The Energy Production Based On Eo-Synchro Application

Mohamad ISSA, Éric DUBÉ, Mohammadjavad MOBARRA, Jean FISET, Adrian ILINCA

In this paper, we are studying an innovative solution to reduce fuel consumption and production cost for electricity production by diesel generators. The solution is particularly suitable for remote areas where the cost of energy is very high not only of inherent cost of technology but also due to transportation cost. After a brief description of power generation based on an conventional synchronous alternator, the attention is focused on the Eo-Synchro concept. Then an innovative approach for optimizing the energy is proposed; it is based from the fact that the structure that contains the stator windings of the alternator is mounted on roller bearings which allows its free rotation around the axis of the rotor, consequently stopping the rotor structure from being static and aims to minimize the unit cost of electricity. Our model yields improved performance on fuel saving at all generator load stages compared to the conventional  model. Experimental results on a 75kW Diesel Generator (DG) validate the performance of the proposed model.

Keywords Diesel generator, power generation system, electrical machines,  control of rotor speed, control of stator speed, Eo-Synchro concept, fuel saving.

Volume 21 Issue 4 December 2017 Paper 619

Review of IDGTE technical papers published from 1913-2016

David Robbins, Ronald Hunt

IDGTE is the place where all involved in the power and engine industries can develop their knowledge in the field of diesel engines, gas engines, gas turbines and related

technologies. We are unique in being dedicated to these Technologies.

This review is being presented in order to assist members, researchers and others to get the best out of the IDGTE papers archive and with the objective of encouraging others to contribute to the archive by submitting papers for publication. A listing of all archived papers and analysis by subject, area of interest and sources is available from Up to the end 2016 there have been more than 632 papers published by the institution. The technologies to be found in the archive include reciprocating engines, diesel and gas engines, gas turbines, off-shore installations, power plants, combined cycle, marine engines, rail traction, automotive engines, road transport, emergency power and standby power. In addition to the engine itself the archive includes many papers on the associated, supporting technologies and control systems. The

source of these papers is truly international with 30 countries having submitted papers and the list also identifies over 180 individual entities who have papers published.

The review also looks at the continuing role of the IDGTE papers programme today, the papers archive in the digital age and how to get papers published in the IDGTE programme.  

The papers archive is a highly valued benefit and free for members to access. It is a treasure trove of information on engine technology gathered over the last 100 years and is still active and growing. The papers are available on application to non-members @ £9.50 each.

Volume 21 Issue 2 October 2017 Paper 618

New sensor technology for exhaust gas temperature

Patrice FLOT and Alain MESLATI, CMR Group, FRANCE

Exhaust gas temperature (EGT) sensors measure the highest temperatures on reciprocating engines. Technical scope includes the full exhaust gas circuit, the after treatment system (which is in close proximity to the turbines), rear of the cylinder head exhaust valves, and on occasion, inside the actual combustion chambers where the hot gases are generated.  

The paper quickly highlights the pros and cons of the current types of EGT sensitive elements, in relation to the constraints encountered when measuring exhaust gas temperatures. Then it focuses on new capabilities brought by digital sensors, showing the range of competitive advantages experienced from the very first sensors introduced onto high horsepower engine platforms.

Volume 21 Issue 2 July 2017 Paper 617

Considerations when Paralleling Generating Sets

Robert Patrick, Cummins Power Generation

Applications where several generating sets are paralleled together are quite common today. Either to supply electrical power to a facility in island mode or paralleled together with the utility in an infinite bus topology.

Standby generators are frequently paralleled together to protect critical applications such as hospitals or data centres in the event of a failure from the utility. In other situations they are used for periodic emergency support to directly back-up the national electricity network. Then there is the scenario where a utility supply is not even available and paralleled groups provide the only source of reliable energy to a specific site. The configurations are immense.

Whatever the application, paralleling is a fundamental concept in power generation and invariably introduces specific challenges that must be overcome.

Volume 21 Issue 2 July 2017

Medium combustion plants Directive: Emissions limits

Pedro Ponte, Cummins Power Generation

Over the past decade, raised awareness and concern over the effect of engine exhaust emissions has led to the introduction of more and more stringent regulatory limits around the world, leading to a significant reduction of pollutant emissions.  

Despite this, the level of air pollution in many places is still problematic. Even though the impact of current legislation has been significant, there are still gaps and not all applications are regulated. With this in mind, on 25 November 2015 the European Parliament signed a new directive that regulates emission limits from medium combustion plants.

Volume 21 Issue 1 April 2017 Paper 616

World’s first ethane-powered marine vessels

Grant Gassner, Paolo Cenini, jell Ove Ulstein and Carlo Contessi - Wärtsilä Marine Solutions

Originally designed to run on LNG, MDO and HFO, the Dragon class vessels were meant to use LNG as fuel when trading ethane and other LPG cargos. However, logistical challenges with LNG and extremely favourable price development of ethane led to the idea to use LEG cargo boil-off as fuel. Wärtsilä worked in close collaboration with Evergas and INEOS to make the world’s first ethane powered marine vessels a reality.

Volume 20 Issue 4 December 2016 Paper 614

Gas turbine air filter system optimization

by James DiCampli & Jack Pan, GE Power & Water and Mark Arsenault, American Air Filter Ltd

Proper air filtration is critical to the overall performance and reliability of gas turbines. Fuel costs approach 80%of the life cycle cost of electricity. Small gains in efficiency can mean huge savings. With fuel costs of around $16.00/mmBTU and higher in Asia, operational savings can be achieved through improved compressor performance using High Efficiency (HEPA) air filters. Operators can see greatly reduced maintenance costs as a result of a much cleaner engine, quantified by less frequent inspections, fewer shutdowns, and higher availability. HEPA filtration can maintain optimum GT efficiency throughout the life of the filter. This paper will explore the decision criteria required in selecting an optimum air filtration solution, with a goal of maximizing gas turbine availability and lowering operating costs. Through case studies and analysis, the review will explore the impacts on essential filter parameters and their impact on gas turbine operations and maintenance.

Volume 20 Issue 4 December 2016 Paper 615

How the latest upgrades of Siemens advanced frame SGT5-4000F gas turbines can support changing market requirements

Marc Tertilt, Siemens AG Power and Gas, Large Gas Turbines, Service Frame Development

In times of changing market requirements it is important that combined cycle gas turbine operators reflect their opportunities to participate in the energy market and evaluate technical possibilities to stay competitive.

This paper presents an update on Siemens’ heavy duty gas turbine product portfolio and recent products resulting from Siemens gas turbine developments to increase the flexibility of the turbines.

The Siemens SGT5-4000F gas turbine fleet has accumulated millions of operating hours and has been continuously upgraded to provide even more customer value.

Recent new apparatus technologies are also available as a retrofit product for the service fleet to improve either gas turbine performance or operational flexibility with extended maintenance intervals. A consequent application of state of the art technology is a key success factor for the advancement of the service fleet.

By providing an example of an upgrade implementation during a major outage in 2014, this paper demonstrates how power output and efficiency eg after more than 100,000 EOH, can be significantly increased above new apparatus guarantee values by implementing stepwise modernizations, and focuses on the technical details of these improvements.

Based on recent development programs, it is possible to significantly improve operational flexibility by reducing the start-up time of combined cycles, to increase load ramps, or to operate with peak power.On the other hand, in times of low energy demand it is possible to reduce the minimum environmental load of the gas turbine. This increases the load range for ancillary services and can improve the overall economic situation of the plant within a dynamic market environment.

Volume 20 Issue 3 September 2016 Paper 612

Hybrid power generation for remote communities and industrial facilities

G Cooper &  Sedighy, Hatch, Canada

The demand for cost-effective and reliable power supply networks for remote communities and mining operations has been generating new opportunities for renewable power projects worldwide. Typically, the primary fuel option for remote sites is light fuel oil No. 2 (also commonly referred to as diesel). The all-in costs of power generation can average $0.25/kWh (Canadian Dollars, “CAD”) and for smaller systems at difficult to reach locations can reach to more than 1$/kWh (CAD). These economic features provide a landscape where unsubsidized small solar and wind power installations can be cost competitive on a levelized cost basis over the life of the project. However while the intermittent generation and output variation inherent to renewables can be absorbed by large interconnected transmission systems, thedynamic performance of solar and wind systems has a more severe impact on small isolated/captive power systems. This paper describes key design approaches, equipment limitations, and control systems for the hybridization of renewable and fossil fueled power sources while presenting a featured project at a mining location in the Canadian Artic.

Volume 20 Issue 3 September 2016 Paper 613

Flowmaster gas turbine system modelling

Sergio Antioquia, Mentor Graphics

In the gas turbine field there are two traditional applications of CFD methods. Three-dimensional (3D) modelling is usually applied at component and sub-component level, in order to study and optimise parts like compressor and turbine blades, or combustor sections. Alternatively, the one-dimensional (1D) approach is usually focussed at the system level, as simulations can be run much faster by assuming that the dominant flows are 1D in nature. Flowmaster is a 1D thermo-fluid code that can provide solutions for systems such as fuel, blade cooling and lubrication networks, as well as secondary airflow applications via its dedicated swirl solver. Its unique capabilities to model the secondary airflow inside cavities effectively allow for a pseudo-3D calculation, increasing the model fidelity, without incurring the time penalty of a 3D approach. This secondary airflow module combines modelling of cross sections of the engine (likely a 2D view, considering the axial symmetry) with dedicated components, allowing the user to predict the effect on performance due to the airflow that is either bled into the secondary air system or lost through the small gaps in the engine. It combines this technology with a number of specific components, such as labyrinth or brush seals, or sets of orifices, which can help to optimise the actual model and increase the efficiency. Finally, future developments in the module will allow a direct 1D (system level) and 3D (component level) integration, reducing time and increasing resolution at once.

Volume 20 Issue 2 June 2016 Paper 610

Power augmentation of existing CCGTs and OCGTs by injection of hot compressed air

James Macnaghten, CEO, Isentropic Ltd

Isentropic Ltd has developed a compressed air energy storage system intended to address the operational issues of existing and new build Combined Cycle Gas Turbines (CCGT), by allowing for faster ramping, greater turndown, and shifting of power from periods of low profitability to periods of high profitability. The Isentropic® GTI-Storage system currently being patented by Isentropic Ltd is based on the process of extraction, storage and subsequent reinjection of hot compressed air back into the gas turbine in a CCGT power plant. Air extraction and air injection has been done in gas turbine plants in the past and this system utilises this process, but with the addition of thermal storage.

Two system variants are identified, incorporated into a single shaft CCGT plant: and increasing resolution at once.

(i) Rapid Response and

(ii) Enhanced Turndown

In this paper, both system variants are assessed in detail with an accompanying explanation of their main features and forecast costs.

Volume 20 Issue 2 June 2016 Paper 611

Gas turbine performance adaptation for an aeroderivative gas turbine  engine power station

Dr Tomas Alvarez – ENDESA, Dr T Nikolaidis,  Dr M Diakostefanis, Dr S Sampath and Prof P Pilidis  - Cranfield University

Gas turbine based power plant operators are facing challenges in the ever changing and complex power demand pattern from the grid. These arise from a variety of circumstances comprising of changing load demand requirements, fluctuation of fuel prices and environmental pressures.  These changes result in modifications to the maintenance requirements where, often, there is not sufficient prior experience.

In this commercial environment the deployment of analytical tools and methods can provide valuable insights to help refine operational decisions with improved knowledge.  The work described here is based on an industry-academia collaboration where gas path diagnostic techniques developed in academia are being deployed in a power station in an island grid.  The gas turbine in question is a triple spool aero derivative gas turbine used for power production.

The first step towards diagnostics is to establish an accurate performance simulation model of the gas turbine under consideration, based on information available in the public domain and inputs provided by the collaborating power plant. This process has been termed as gas turbine model adaptation.  This is the exercise described here comprising private company data, public data and targeted estimates by the research team.  This exercise of adapting a model based on information  publicly available, plant specific data obtained from the power plant and engineering judgement used by the research team has resulted in a strong platform which will act as the foundation for the development of diagnostics methods for the plant.

Volume 20 Issue 1 March 2016 Paper 608

The Life of a CCGT Power Station  Engineering Design Life versus The Commercial World

Peter Tottman, Barking Power Limited

This paper gives a technical review of the development, construction, operation and decommissioning of the 1,000MW Barking CCGT Power Station; setting out the overall performance of the project, both technical and financial, the engineering challenges that the project encountered and its closure. Suggestions are made as to the importance of end-of-life planning for engineering plant.  

The power station closed before its technical life had expired, giving rise to an engineering question “How do engineers reconcile their decision making during the design and operation of assets to the realities of the commercial world, so as to adhere to their Code of Conduct requirement that Members shall take all reasonable steps to avoid waste of natural resources, damage to the environment, and damage or destruction of man-made products?”

The premature closure of Barking, along with other stations from the Dash-for-Gas era, poses the question -is the initial investment and exit decision making of a free market privatised industry suboptimal when compared to a public centrally controlled industry, and to what extent do the supposed cost benefits of privatisation outweigh the cost of suboptimal asset utilisation?

Volume 20 Issue 1 March 2016 Paper 609

British Tank Engines of World War I

Trevor Owen

This paper traces the history of development of engines for British tanks which were used during World War I. The initial engine selection was strictly limited as there was only one petrol engine in production in the UK that could provide the required minimum power within an acceptable size. The diesel engines of the era were too large and underpowered.

The initial selection proved to be a liability in service with a significant list of problems which affected its performance and reliability in action, including the production of clouds of blue smoke that gave warning to the enemy forces of a pending attack.

It was therefore necessary to develop and produce a replacement engine on a top priority basis. Harry Ricardo was engaged to undertake the task commencing in October 1916 and he was assisted with the design and production work by George Windeler, Chief Engineer of Mirrlees Bickerton and Day (who later became President of DEUA). The new engine was in volume production by April 1917 having previously met all the onerous design requirements during the prototype testing phase. It was the first engine to be manufactured in volume by multiple engine manufacturers within the UK with full interchangeability of parts.

The paper incorporates feedback on problems and service results from various publications and also from some unpublished notes by Ricardo.

Volume 19 Issue 4 December 2015 Paper 607

MAN B&W Stationary Engines – Alternative Fuels

Helle Gotfredsen, MAN Diesel & Turbo

The demand for energy and technological development is increasing worldwide.

Ideas, proven by operational experience on reciprocating engines with the highest possible efficiency level, are subject to renewed interest.  This paper deals with the use of alternative fuels in MAN B&W two-stroke low speed engines for stationary application.

Volume 19 Issue 3 September 2015 Paper 605

The diesel cycle verified for methanol operation    

Helle Gotfredsen, MAN Diesel & Turbo

In 2012 MAN Diesel & Turbo decided to expand the engine portfolio with engine designs that allow operation on fuels with low flashpoints.

Since then, nine engines of the 50-bore MAN B&W engine design intended for operation on methanol have been or-dered.  The orders placed are based on MAN Diesel & Turbo’s proven ME-LGI design concept and the engines will be delivered in 2015 from various licensees.

On 17 March 2015, the first test on methanol was completed at MAN Die-sel & Turbo’s Diesel Research Centre in Copenhagen, Denmark, in the pres-ence of classification societies, ship-owners, licensees and fuel gas system makers. This technical paper focuses on the technical data obtained from this test and the subsequent test made on a 4-cylinder engine in Japan.

Volume 19 Issue 3 September 2015 Paper 606

Efficiency gains by bottoming reciprocating engines with an ORC

Thomas Clark,  ElectraTherm Inc.

Reciprocating engine power generation efficiencies are well defined and understood, but significant increases are hard to find, costly and could add additional complexity and maintenance to the end user. One consideration is to investigate the value of the waste heat created by the engine, where in most instances today waste heat is just released to the atmosphere via the engine’s radiator and exhaust.   

Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technology is not new, but in recent years with the development of smaller packaged commercial ORC units, new and existing reciprocating engines are being retrofitted to turn the wasted thermal energy into increased power output. With the commercialization of lower temperature ORC systems, jacket water and exhaust are excellent sources of energy that can be converted into fuel savings. The ORC uses this previously wasted heat for additional fuel free, emission free power. ORC configurations can utilize either high temperature (exhaust), low temperature (jacket water) or a combination of both, demonstrating fuel efficiency gains up to 12%.  The cooling power of the ORC also allows it to act as the engine’s radiator – saving on capital and displacing up to 30% of the ORC’s initial upfront cost.  Instead of purchasing a radiator, an integrated ORC can become a radiator with a payback. For systems consuming diesel fuel, paybacks in fewer than 2-3 years are achievable.

This paper demonstrates the potential of low temperature ORC technology coupled to reciprocating engines with applications throughout many industries. Also described is information about technical aspects of ORC machines, including the specific differentiation of ElectraTherm’s technology, fleet experience, robustness of design, and other attributes to consider when choosing an ORC for engine applications. The paper identifies specific examples and experiences from ElectraTherm installations in Europe and North America. Finally, the paper identifies important site considerations and payback scenarios analysis for engine users to have a full understanding of a complete project.

Volume 19 Issue 2 (June 2015) Paper 604

Adsorption: A simple and cost-effective solution to remove varnish

Bryan Holden, C.C. Jensen Ltd and Scott Taylor, Sembcorp Utilities (UK) Ltd

Varnish has emerged as one of the most destructive of oil contaminants in industry. Just like heat, particle and moisture contamination, varnish acts as a so-called soft contaminant that severely degrades the lubricant and impacts machine reliability.

A major issue is that varnish is known to be smaller than the size ratings of most filters and, therefore, cannot be removed using conventional pore-size related filtration. This article focuses on adsorption - a practical, simple and relatively low-cost solution to varnish removal.

Adsorption is the adhesion of molecules to a solid surface. Adsorptive filtration is the retention of particles to a filter medium by electrostatic forces or by molecular attraction.  For better understanding, it is helpful to address four common myths related to varnish removal.

Volume 19 Issue 2 (June 2015)Paper 603  

Optimisation of GT air intake filtration through the implementation of water-removal technologies

Gianluca de Arcangelis TT Filtration

Gas turbine air intake filtration (AIF hereafter) has become a popular topic in view of the risks and costs provided by letting dirt and corrosive and erosive particles through to the compressor and to the GT hot parts. As a result, nowadays most GT operators seek to install EPA filters.

It is important to consider that traditional filtration technologies are strictly ‘air’ filters, while the environment in real life presents important challenges to separate water, fog and high humidity.

The choice of prefilters is critical since these should aim to guarantee that no free water particles leach through, as well as a long life.  This paper provides details of such new filtration technologies.

Volume 19 Issue 1 (March 2015) Paper 602

Economic evaluation of online washing for a heavy duty gas turbine operation

Uyioghosa Igie, Pericles Pilidis, Daniel Giesecke and Orlando Minervino - Gas Turbine Engineering Group, Cranfield University and Paul Lambart - R-MC Power Recovery Ltd

Compressor fouling is known to degrade the performance of gas turbine engines and online washing has shown to be promising in mitigating the effects of fouling. Despite some of the positive findings from actual engine operation or laboratory experiments presented in open literature, there is yet no study that addresses the economic viability of this technology. The aim of this study is to ascertain whether the performance (power) enhancement benefit of washing outweighs the capital investment and recurring cost for a heavy duty gas turbine.

The study applies actual engine data for a case of continuous operation for a period of one year. The engine is known to be degraded due to compressor fouling and results from previous experimental study of online washing has been implemented to predict the changes in the capacity.

Executing online washing every 10 days, at a constant recovery rate of 30% translated to an additional profit of £236,000 (after deducting the operational and maintenance cost of washing) due to improved capacity for the 240MW plant in that year. The return on investment and payback period were calculated and the results indicate 163% and 0.66 years respectively, while washing more than one engine proved more beneficial. The investigation clearly indicates the potential economic benefit of online washing as well as demonstrating the viability for a heavy duty industrial gas turbine engine for base load operation.

Volume 18 Issue 4 (December 2014) Paper 601

Fuel Flexibility Done Right

MAN B&W ME-GI-S and MAN B&W LGI-S for stationary applications

MAN Diesel & Turbo

This paper deals with the latest developments of the MAN B&W ME-GI-S and ME-LGI-S dual fuel two-stroke low speed diesel engines and associated fuel gas supply systems.

The discussion about and the requirement for lowering CO2, NOx, SOx and particulate emissions have increased operators’ and owners’ interest in investigating future fuel alternatives. The MAN B&W ME-GI-S and ME-LGI-S engines offer the opportunity of utilising such alternatives, also for stationary application.

The gaseous/liquid fuel flexibility makes the MAN B&W ME-GI-S and ME-LGI-S engines an obvious choice for projects where the engine is connected to interruptible gas supply systems or where a switch/mixing ratio among various fuels is required for various reasons.

Volume 18 Issue 3 (September 2014) Paper 600

Extended Fuels Capability of Siemens’ SGT-400 DLE Combustion System

Brian M Igoe, Expert Proposal Manager (FEED) and Andy Stocker, Product Manager SGT-400, Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery Ltd, Lincoln

To meet the growing demand to operate on gaseous fuels with little or no treatment, or use fuels derived from a variety of waste conversion processes Siemens Energy has extended the fuels capability of its’ product range, especially the Dry Low Emissions combustion system. Fuels containing high levels of inert species, nitrogen or carbon dioxide, lower the effective Wobbe Index of the fuels, thus needing increased fuel mass flow to achieve the same energy content.

This paper presents the development process along with the results achieved to accommodate a wide range of fuels. Discrete changes were required in the DLE burner hardware allowing fuel flows to be achieved at similar supply pressures and combustor pressure drop as for standard fuels thus ensuring combustion characteristics were not compromised.

Some applications are presented and discussed covering both on-shore and off-shore duty, including the most recent application on the SGT-400 using a weak bio-gas derived from an ethanol production plant. A gas only solution was applied, requiring careful management of the control parameters to achieve acceptable starting and transient operation through to the application of load.

This programme demonstrates the ability of the Siemens DLE combustor to accommodate a wide range of fuels.

Volume 18 Issue 2 (June 2014) Paper 599

Energy storage in the UK and Republic of Ireland electricity grids

Dr Jim Mooney, University of the West of Scotland

The widespread adoption of wind power generation as a means of providing electrical energy has brought significant changes to electrical power distribution systems in the United Kingdom (UK) and the Republic of Ireland (ROI).  These two countries are both remote from continental Europe with limited interconnection to the European electricity distribution network, and also have limitations in terms of grid interconnection within and between these two countries. As the amount of grid-connected wind generation capacity increases there are challenges in terms of integrating the variable nature of wind generation, however, there are also opportunities arising from the changing mix of generation taking place in the UK and ROI. This paper discusses a method of integrating the operation of wind generators with Combined Cycle Gas Turbines (CCGT) and energy storage in the form of hydrogen.

Hydrogen acts as a storable ‘energy carrier’ that can be either converted back into electricity thus providing a balancing service to electricity generators and suppliers, or used as a ‘zero emissions’ fuel for other applications, such as transport. [1] Hydrogen (H2) can be produced from water and electricity by means of electrolysis. It has a very high energy density and can be stored in caverns practically without loss in virtually unlimited quantities for unlimited periods. This makes it ideally suited for storing energy for periods of weeks or whole seasons. Furthermore H2 can be converted back into electricity using fuel-cells, gas turbines or gas engines. Other options being explored for hydrogen include injection into the natural gas network.

Volume 18 Issue 1 (March 2014) - Paper 598

Flexible conventional generation plant, with full flue gas abatement

Peter Grima, Enemalta Corporation, Malta

The Maltese electrical system is quite typical of small island power systems, and differs significantly from larger European ones in a number of key areas. Enemalta Corporation is the state owned vertically integrated utility and Malta has derogations from the Internal Electricity Market Directive on the requirement to open its market and on third party access to the network, making the Maltese Electricity Market effectively a single buyer/single seller structure. Typical of such small systems, is the lack of economies of scale which both increases operating costs and makes the usual way of unbundling and privatisation unfeasible.

At present Enemalta operates two Power Stations, which supply all the electrical power needs of the Islands of Malta and Gozo. These stations with a total combined nominal installed capacity of 620MW, are interconnected together by means of the HV distribution network. Malta has no indigenous primary energy resources and therefore Enemalta relies entirely on imported fuels, mainly heavy fuel oil and light distillate, although there are plans to construct a floating LNG storage and regasification plant at Marsaxlokk, adjacent to Delimara Power station. Once the interconnector is commissioned and put into service by the end of 2014, the older power station at Marsa will be decommissioned.

Volume 17 Issue 4 (December 2013) Paper 596

GE’s integrated GTCC and fulfilment of grid code requirements

Maximum Buquet - Operability Systems Integration Leader and Christian Solacolu - Controls & Electrical Consulting Engineer, GE Power & Water

Frequency stability is one of the prevailing concerns of a Transmission System Operator (TSO) whose aim and duty is the reliable operation of the grid.  Operation of the electrical grids must be reliable, handling future generation mix, whilst often being constrained by existing infrastructure.  To help meet these challenges, TSOs have developed grid codes.  Among other requirements, grid codes define minimum performance requirements of generating units connected to the grid.

This paper focuses on one important aspect of grid codes, which is grid frequency support.

Volume 17 Issue 3 (September 2013) - Paper 595

THE SGT-300 twin-shaft - the latest addition to Siemens’ GT portfolio

Christian Engelbert and Darrell Helas, Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery Ltd, Lincoln

Siemens Lincoln site has been designing and manufacturing industrial gas turbines since the late 1940’s.

With the introduction of its latest gas turbine, Siemens now proudly looks back at decades of engineering, manufacturing and operational expertise.

This paper looks at the heritage of Siemens’ small industrial turbines through to today’s business, the current product portfolio and typical applications. It examines how a ‘Product Family’ has been evolved via technology programmes. Scaled axial compressor technology is discussed as an example. An insight is given to how this ‘evolutionary technology’ approach has been applied to the latest SGT-300 twin shaft engine to ensure industry leading standards of reliability and availability.

Volume 17 Issue 2 (June 2013) - Paper 593

Ten years hard labour in Mombasa

Graham Dilliway, BSc CEng FIMechE FIET Hon FIPowerE

This paper examines all aspects of the work, skill and dedication that in the last twelve years have gone into the engineering, design, construction and operation of the Kipevu 2 diesel power plant in Mombasa.  The plant is internationally recognised both by lenders and investors as a great success in terms of its operating reliability, power availability, energy dispatch and heat rate.  

The paper also looks at some of the near-misses and incidents that have occurred during the first eleven operating years, and considers what might have happened if those near-misses had materialised into actual events.  It also looks to the future of the plant, and considers what future events may occur which could impact heavily on its current excellent reputation and productivity.

Volume 17 Issue 1 (March 2013) - Paper 592

Narowal 213MW diesel combined cycle - overview of project from initial concept to commercial operation

Brian Kinsella and Stephen O’Gorman, Mott MacDonald Ireland Limited

Pakistan is a developing economy and its projected load growth in electrical power demand over the next ten years is expected to be at least 1,500MW per annum. There are many power plant technology alternatives being considered to meet this demand including hydro, open cycle gas turbine (OCGT), combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT), conventional steam turbine generation (STG) and diesel engine driven power plant. This power growth is located in the major cities of Pakistan, for example, in Lahore which is located in the Punjab region and has a population of circa 8.5 million. Power cuts during the Summer peak demand period are regular occurrences. This problem is compounded in certain less populated areas of the country where one such area is Narowal in the Punjab, a town which is located approximately 10km from the Indian border and 120km North East of Lahore.

Volume 16 Issue 4 (December 2012) - Paper 590

Implementing improvements to gas turbine air inlet filtration - an operator’s perspective

Scott Taylor and Stuart Lax, Sembcorp Utilities (UK) Ltd

This paper looks at an operator’s experiences and learning during the implementation of improvements to a gas turbine air inlet filtration system during the first few years of operation.

The operator, Sembcorp Utilities UK (Sembcorp), is a subsidiary of Singapore-based Sembcorp Industries, and is the leading industrial utilities and services business on Teesside and one of the largest in the UK, providing steam and electricity to the major manufacturers on the Wilton International site. As part of its combined heat and power operations Sembcorp now run two General Electric Frame 6B gas turbines at the Wilton International site.

Volume 16 Issue 3 (September 2012) - Paper 589

Gas processing, side stream alternative use

Stefan Falten, Wartsila Finland Oy

Gas conditioning produces different gas/liquid mixes that in the traditional downstream engineering process end up in defined products and by-products.  Upstream gas, or gas and oil hydrocarbon fields do not necessarily turn up where the ethylene production is in its infancy or even well established, and even with access to modern supply chain management supply and demand techniques some of the by-products can be a challenge to find useful outlets.  Gas processing intrinsically requires energy conversion in both forms of power and heat, therefore using by-products as free or minimum CapEx investment for a fuel source would maximise the main export sales gas amount produced.  Full utilisation of all traditional downstream by-products, or even intermediate streams could dramatically simplify the gas conditioning plant design.  A combustion gas engine with suitable properties to accept rich or lean fuel gas with wide variations is used to provide power and heat.

Volume 16 Issue 3 (September 2012) - Paper 588

Addressing the cause of varnishing in gas turbine lubrication systems

John A Platt BSc(Hons) AIMechE FIPowerE, Global Technical Manager, Castrol Power, BP plc

Varnishing in modern gas turbine lubrication and control systems is an increasingly common problem which often results in serious impact on reliability and availably of the plant.

The problem of varnishing in lubrication systems is only too well known, but is generally not well understood. This paper seeks to impart an understanding of the lubricant properties and characteristics which affect its ability to resist varnish formation and, with reference to over 800,000 hours of successful operation under varying service conditions, to demonstrate that by careful formulation and appropriate selection of the lubricant, together with correct monitoring and control, it is possible to effectively address the root cause of varnishing thereby delivering a valuable contribution to reliability, availability and optimisation of the asset.

Volume 16 Issue 2 (June 2012) - Paper 587

Diesel power for UK rail traction

Trevor Owen CEng CMarEng MIPowerE FIMechE FIMarEST

One of the major applications of diesel power in the UK since the 1950s has been for rail traction purposes.  This article traces the use of diesel power from the earliest shunting locomotive in the current main line locomotives, but excludes diesel multiple units (DMU).

Volume 16 Issue 2 (June 2012)

The influence of CO2 in fuel on engine parameters

Marcel Skarohlid, Josef Bozek Research Centre of Engine and Automotive Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague

The removing/clearing of CO2 from gaseous fuels as adulterant is a contemporary trend.  To the contrary with this trend the presented paper describes benefits of CO2 fuel content on basic engine parameters like indicated mean effective pressure, indicated efficiency and NOx production.  This paper analyses trade off between air excess, ignition timing and CO2 fuel mass fraction in detail.

Volume 16 Issue 1 (March 2012) - Paper 586

Protecting critical equipment, reducing operating costs and safeguarding against downtime through on-line oil condition monitoring

Dr Stuart Lunt, Kittiwake Developments Ltd, UK

Oil condition monitoring is a vital part of integrated asset health management. With an increasing impetus towards real-time decision making, delays incurred in offline laboratory oil analysis are becoming less acceptable. At present, several oil quality parameters can be monitored by commercially available sensors, and active research and development programmes are being pursued by both academic and industrial researchers to develop robust, cost effective sensors for the remaining key parameters.

Volume 16 Issue 1 (March 2012)

Technological and economic aspects of two years operation of the biogas co-generation set at the Warta SA waste treatment plant in Czestochowa, Poland

Adam Duzynski, Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland

As early as the 1970s, the Warta SA waste treatment plant in Czestochowa, and actually its predecessor – the Warta SA Commercial Water Company, undertook, on the initiative of Prof Karol Cupial from the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Control Technology (IMTiTS PCz) – presently the Institute of Thermal Machinery at the Czestochowa University of Technology – Poland’s first trials on the utilisation of biogas, a by-product of anaerobic sewage sludge fermentation, by using it for supplying piston engine-driven gas cogeneration sets.  In the 1980s, the manufacture of a family of 100-300kW Wola Henschel gas engines was started up in co-operation with ZMiN Wola of Warsaw, and in the 90s, jointly with H Cegielski of Poznan, Poland’s largest and most modern heat and power-generating set with an 8A20G (600kW/1,000 min-1) engine with the recovery of engine, oil and blend cooling heat and exhaust gas heat was constructed and thoroughly tested.  The cogeneration set complete with this engine had been commercially operated in the Warta SA waste treatment plant in Czestochowa by IMTiTS PCz employees up to 2006, and then, in 2008, it was sold and replaced with a cogeneration set driven by a larger-power GE Jenbacher engine.

Volume 15 Issue 5 (December 2011) - Paper 584

The propulsion of merchant ships: The case for LNG - the new era?

T W Page, IEng, MIMarEST, FIPowerE, Wartsila UK Ltd

The fundamental changes in ship propulsion over the last century or more have been driven by economical pressures and resultant technological development. The first major change from coal firing to oil was a gradual process during the first half of the 20th century.

Volume 14 & 15 Issue 4

Operational Report (combined edition) 2009/2010 Data

Compiled by Tom Woodford, Guernsey Electricity

Volume 15 Issue 3 (September 2011) - Paper 583

Reducing fuel consumption on the field by continuously measuring fuel quality on electronically fuel injected engines

Mr Patrice Flot, CMR , France, Mr Alain Meslati, CMR, France and

Mr Thierry Delorme, Ecole Centrale Marseille, France

This paper describes the sensor’s hardware and software technologies as well as the expected engine combustion performance improvement resulting from the new control parameters.  This sensor can also be used to protect the engine from poor quality fuel.

Volume 15 Issue 2 (June 2011) - Paper 582

The History of the Industrial Gas Turbine (Part 1 The First Fifty Years 1940-1990)

Ronald J Hunt CEng FIMechE FIPowerE , Thermal Power Consultant, Power + Energy Associates

This history of the industrial gas turbine documents the history of the development of gas turbines for land based, locomotive and marine applications.  A key part of the history is the documentation of all manufacturers and gas turbine models produced each year since 1940.  The aircraft engine is excluded from the scope of the work and only referred to in as far as it related to the development of industrial machines gas turbines. It has not been possible, up to the time of publication, to include every company who were active in the development of industrial gas turbine however the research work is continuing and it is planned to add to this history in due course.

This paper (Part 1) deals with the first fifty years of development of the industrial gas turbine from 1940 to 1990.  It is planned that a second paper (Part 2) will be presented later in 2011 covering the period 1990 onwards.  

Volume 15 Issue 1 (March 2011) - Paper 581

Efficient combustion of Glycerol and other low cetane fuels in the diesel engine

John McNeil Aquafuel Research, Kent Science Park

This paper covers the ultra efficient low exhaust emission burning of the bio-diesel by-product, and algae formed, pure Glycerine without chemical additives, or processing.

The paper specifically deals with the patented principle behind ignition and efficient combustion of glycerine and other low cetane fuels, together with the manner in which the process lends itself to CHP applications.

Volume 15 Issue 1 (March 2011) - Paper 580

Stationary MAN B&W MC-S engines for biofuel applications

Helle Gotfredsen, MAN B&W

In recent years, the stationary diesel engine market has seen a demand for units running on biofuel. The nature of this demand is driven by the desire to be CO2 neutral, based on reliable, fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly power generation for both public utilities and Independent Power Producers (IPPs).

This demand is being met by modern marine application derivative medium speed diesel gensets and two-stroke low speed crosshead uniflow diesel engines, capable of burning almost any mineral fuel available on the market, whether liquid or gaseous.

This paper deals with the application scenarios of such engines and their biofuel capability and describes the installation examples of such engines.

Volume 14 Issue 5 (December 2010) – Paper 578

Dhekelia ICE - a modern fast track low speed plant

Knud Hvidtfeldt Rasmussen, Burmeister & Wain Scandinavian Contract A/S

Dhekelia Internal Combustion Engines – ICE - is a 50 MW diesel power plant located on the east coast of Cyprus, north of Larnaka. The plant was contracted in November 2007 and handed over in May 2009. The Dhekelia plant is a conventional plant with 3 low speed diesel engines of type MAN-B&W Mitsui 12K50MC-S, each of 18 MW at 176.5 rpm. The plant is sea water cooled.

This paper describes the plant, the engine design with a single turbocharger, and the measures taken on design, logistics and construction for accomplishing the fast track execution.

At the time of ordering the plant, suppliers of large components were operating at peak load causing many difficulties resulting in long delivery time. This caused extreme demands for fast action during the erection on site. Due to the single turbocharger arrangement, the structural vibration condition deviates to some extent from well-known behaviour in former plants with similar engines. The “T-mode” vibrations of the engines are controlled by active force compensators.

The plant performance in terms of power and efficiency has been fully satisfactory. As the plant is operated in parallel with steam turbines, the engines are in most of the operation period used with daily start and stop, utilizing the optimal flexibility of the diesel engines.  The performance of the engines has been closely monitored with regular port inspections. Very low wear rates of cylinders and piston rings have been demonstrated.

Volume 14 Issue 3 (September/October 2010) – Paper 577

An analysis of micro gas turbines for UK domestic combined heat and power

A Clay and G D Tansley, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Birmingham

For Domestic Combined Heat and Power (DCHP) applications, large component losses are inevitable when using a Micro Gas Turbine (MGT) prime mover of 1kW or less due to low mass flows and high operating speeds. MGT research has developed advanced technological strategies to address the particular issues of bearing platform, impeller design and impeller manufacture. This paper seeks to establish the performance criteria for an alternative, low cost MGT DCHP machine via an analytical discussion based on adiabatic, air standard cycle analysis.

Break-even DCHP system efficiencies were derived for various operating strategies; a target prime mover efficiency of 15% was established. The detrimental effect of low component efficiencies on the Brayton cycle made the DCHP performance targets a significant challenge. As a result, a simple cycle machine was considered unsuitable for DCHP application.

A competitive recuperated MGT was deemed suitable only when slightly optimistic turbomachinery efficiencies were considered. The introduction of pressure drops from heat exchange combined with poor component performance produced shallow inflection points on a system efficiency vs. pressure ratio curve.  Selecting a pressure ratio below that which corresponded with maximal efficiency reduced shaft speed with some compromise in system efficiency. Both the use of efficient turbomachinery components (at low cost) and an effective heat exchanger with low pressure drops are essential for a successful MGT DCHP unit.

Volume 14 Issue 3 (September/October 2010) – Paper 576

The evolution of gas turbine compressor cleaning

Russ Gordon, R-MC Power Recovery Ltd

This paper looks at the evolution of gas turbine compressor cleaning, and relates it to the various technical advances in the development of gas turbines. It starts with a reminder of how fouling affects the aerodynamics of the compressor and hence the necessity for compressor washing.


The early days of cleaning compressors with very basic materials and methods are described, as used on the relatively unsophisticated types of gas turbines of the time. Moving on through the 60s and 70s and the introduction of single crystal blades and super-alloys, it goes into the move from hand cleaning to cleaning at crank speeds, and so on to the latest cleaning technology employed today.


The development of wash fluids is also presented, from tap water up to the latest sophisticated blends of chemicals.


Evolving nozzle design and positions in the intake plenum is examined in some detail. Increasing air flows, and developments in compressor blade design, have influenced the importance of droplet formation and hence nozzle design.


Environmental legislation is covered briefly, with its influence on gas turbine development and hence cleaning methods.


The degree of automating wash systems is discussed as the efficiency demands on the industry become greater.

Volume 14 Issue 2 (June 2010) – Paper 575

Carbon capture and storage implications for CCGT development

K Foy, Parsons Brinckerhoff

This paper describes the various methods of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) applicable to Gas Turbines (GT) and CCGT plant, focusing on the three most advanced technologies: post-combustion chemical capture of CO2 from GT exhaust; gasification of coal with pre-combustion CO2 capture followed by combustion of low carbon fuel in a GT; and oxyfuel technology, or combustion of gas with oxygen rather than air. The current status of each technology is described and possible future developments are considered.

The technical issues involved in both CCS equipped new-build thermal plant and retrofit of CCS to existing and future thermal plant are described, including both space requirements and design implications. The meaning of Carbon Capture Ready is discussed and the impacts of the new EU and UK consenting regime for thermal plant are presented.  

The impact of the different types of CCS on operation of CCGT and SCGT is discussed.  

The cost of power generation from thermal plant fitted with CCS is presented in comparison with other power generation options.  

The paper also includes a discussion of possible developments in the future CCS industry, including transportation and storage networks.

Volume 14 Issue 1 (March 2010) – Paper 573

Biomass - going that extra mile!

A McMurtrie, AIM Energy Ltd

Biomass is seen as being an important renewable energy resource and a key component in helping to deliver the Government’s greenhouse gas emission reduction targets as set out in the Climate Change Act 2008, ie a 34% reduction in the UK’s net carbon account by 2020, rising to 80% by 2050 (versus a 1990 baseline) and, the UK’s target under EU legislation to produce 15% of its energy requirement from renewable sources by 2020.

This article primarily refers to combustible biomass material typically categorised as ‘plant biomass’, although many of the challenges faced with utilising this fuel source equally apply to other biomass materials.  To date, viable, medium sized industrial and commercial scale biomass has proven challenging to implement due to the added complexity and cost, versus say traditional fossil fuel heat/steam production, power or CHP plant.  Increased complexity typically arises out of fuel; its availability, storage and handling, the physical plant size and duty, environmental compliance, capital cost, etc.  This has meant that the number of developments delivered to date has fallen short of what might have been expected.

This paper seeks to outline some of the key challenges and considerations to be addressed in assessing whether biomass offers a sustainable and viable option to companies and in doing so may offer some insight into why many organisations in the UK have so far rejected or ‘parked’ a potential biomass solution.  However, whilst highlighting these challenges, I also hope that some additional guidance may allow interested parties to also consider the ‘positives’ and thus encourage them to give some serious thought to the opportunity that biomass may have to offer them in their specific situation.

Volume 13 Issue 5 (December 2009) – Paper 572

Product Development and test program for aggressive gas engines

V Carey, K Tellier, G Delafargue and D Squirrell, Exxon Mobil

Engine designs, operating conditions, and environmental factors place increasingly higher demands on lubricants for all gas engines, but even more so those operating on the aggressive gas applications associated with sewage and landfill gases.  This paper will focus on the product developed specifically for such applications, and where the fuel contains high amounts of silicon along with other contaminants, presenting an especially difficult lubricating environment.

Increased engine reliability, extended time between engine overhauls, and reduced operating costs were the primary objectives of the development program.  This paper will cover general aspects of the laboratory development program and present documentation on the excellent field performance achieved.

Volume 13 Issue 4 (November 2009) – Paper 570

Operational Report 2009

Compiled by Tom Woodford, Guernsey Electricity

Volume 13 Issue 3 (September 2009) – Paper 571

Industry-University collaboration:  a case study between Manx Electricity Authority and Cranfield University

Y G Li, P Pilidis and E Tsoutsanis, Cranfield University and M Newby, Manx Electricity Authority

In the volatile energy market effective use of the available technological, energy and financial resources is now, more than ever, highly pursued.  In a combined cycle power plant, gas turbines are the prime mover of power generation.  Therefore, detailed understanding and monitoring of gas turbine performance, health condition and associated costs have a deep impact on the decision making process concerning the plant’s operational and maintenance strategy.

In this context, research collaboration between Manx Electricity Authority (MEA) and Cranfield University has been carried out since 2001 and a series of technologies and software have been and are still being developed at Cranfield University and some of them have been integrated into MEA’s Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Power Plant in Pulrose, Isle of Man.  During this constructive and successful collaboration period, the University has been fortunate to acknowledge the industrial needs and make significant academic contributions through ongoing research projects jointly supported by both MEA and EPSRC.  On the other hand, MEA has valued the complexity of asset management concerning the gas turbine and the combined cycle, therefore enhancing its trading and operational capabilities through the application of developed performance, diagnostic, trading and economic analysis software.

This paper presents the main framework of this collaboration by emphasising the research undertaken on the gas turbine performance simulation and diagnostics, combined cycle performance analysis, trading and economic analysis to support MEA in their decision making process.

Volume 13 Issue 2 (June 2009) – Paper 568

Barking Power Station generator core failure and repair process

G Smith, Thames Power Services

Core failures on running turbo-generators are rare, however when such failures occur they are often sudden and usually lead to major equipment damage which will need significant specialist engineering to repair. Repair durations can be lengthy and arduous which often relate to substantial loss of revenue for the business.  This paper discusses the tools available to carry out the diagnosis and subsequent cause of the fault and the Engineering and risk management processes adopted to return the generator unit back to reliable service in the shortest possible time.

Volume 13 Issue 1 (March 2009) – Paper 567

The Tri-O-Gen Organic Rankine Cycle:  Development and perspectives

J P van Buijtenen, TriO-Gen BV

The principle of the ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) is well known already for decades.  However, most of the present ORC-plants are based on conventional turbine technology, which includes shaft seals, a reduction gear and a lubricating oil system.  A new turbo-generator concept has been developed, using Toluene as a working fluid and lubricant.  This concept allows a completely hermetic design, with no need for shaft seals or a separate lubrication system.  Toluene is a combustible solvent, but it has a high thermal stability and is not marked as poisonous.

The ORC process demands a very high expansion ratio, at moderate turbine inlet temperature.  A standard 175 kW (gross power) unit is able to run at optimum speed for turbine and pump on the same shaft as the high-speed generator.

This paper will describe the novel turbo-generator as well as the total packaged system, as it recently has been introduced on the market.

Volume 12 Issue 5 (December 2008) – Paper 566

The power and control systems design for the UK future aircraft carrier

Lt Roy Casson, Colin English, Simon Newman and Lt Cmdr Ian Timbrell

At 65,000 tonnes the Future Carrier (CVF) represents a step change in British force projection capability, with the ability to embark more than 30 aircraft of various types to undertake a range of differing roles. Behind such a ship there must be a generating capability that is able to provide large amounts of power for both the ship's propulsion and services, rapidly, reliably and economically. An Integrated Full Electric Propulsion (IFEP) system has been selected as the most suitable for this task.  

At the heart of this system are two MT30 Gas Turbine Alternators (GTAs), each capable of producing 35MW of electrical power to propel the ship at high speeds. This speed is necessary to launch advanced fighter aircraft and helicopters to enable this modern capital ship to perform a multitude of tasks. A variety of challenges are currently being faced to integrate these large GTAs into a power and propulsion system that also features Diesel Generators (DGs), power electronic converters and Advanced Induction Motors (AIMs).  Solutions to these issues are being developed by the Aircraft Carrier Alliance (ACA), which is responsible for procuring the ship, working closely with the MoD and the engine manufacturer to provide a robust, reliable and responsive power source that is fully integrated with the propulsion system.  

Volume 12 Issue 4 (November 2008) Operational Report 2008

Paper 565

The demands of a new running regime for slow-speed diesel engines

Tom Woodford, Guernsey Electricity Ltd

Since the island of Guernsey became electrically connected to mainland France in 2000, a significant, yet highly variable, proportion of the island’s electricity demand has been imported through the submarine cable interconnector. The existing power plant on the island, comprising five slow-speed diesel generators, has subsequently been required to provide only the remaining proportion of the island’s electricity demand. This change of operating duty, from base load to intermittent and peak lopping duties, was widely anticipated to create operating difficulties for the engines, since these are duty cycles for which the engines are unsuited.

This paper examines some of the issues associated with operating the slow speed engines over recent years, describes some of the particular and unusual problems encountered, and the steps taken to overcome them. The paper concludes with a look forward at the continuing operation of the engines, and the uncertainty surrounding their life expectancy.

Volume 12 Issue 3 (September 2008) – Paper 564

The management of variability and intermittency of electrical power supply

Dave Andrews, Consultant

This paper outlines how Wessex Water utilises its multiple small-diesel generation capacity within the framework of the electricity trading market of the UK set-up to manage intermittency and variability of supply.  The paper demonstrates how these existing mechanisms could readily accommodate the variability and intermittency of large-scale renewable energy supplies.

Volume 12 Issue 2 (June 2008)

Low container ship speed facilitated by versatile ME/ME-C engines

MAN Diesel A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark

Recently, fuel oil prices have risen to unprecedented levels, bringing fuel oil consumption of diesel engines more into focus than for a long time. At the same time, exhaust gas emissions in general and CO2 emission in particular are top priorities.

Volume 12 Issue 2 (June 2008)

The use of di-methyl-ether as alternative fuel in gas turbines for power generation

Alva A Shortt, Bateman Power & Energy

In the last fifteen years large heavy-duty gas turbine plant for power generation has been the technology of choice for the electric industry world-wide. For peak load power generation, distillate fuel oil can be used but this reduces the environmental performance of the gas turbine compared to natural gas as well as increasing the cost of maintenance.

Di-Methyl-Ether (DME) can be synthesised from methanol or directly from synthesis gas and has been used to power converted compression ignition engines. Various schemes have been proposed for large scale DME production using natural gas, coal or biomass as a feedstock.

A multi-cluster gas turbine burner has recently been developed which addresses the problems of flashback and spontaneous combustion experience when firing DME in standard or Dry Low NOx burners. The DME Burner shows promising combustion efficiency and dynamic pressure performance and is capable of meeting a NOx emission limit of less than 25ppm NOx @15% O2.

The objective of this report is to verify whether DME is a clean, renewable and economic alternative fuel that could be viably used in a simple cycle gas turbine power plant to generate peaking electricity.

Volume 12 Issue 1 (March 2008) – Paper 562

Gaseous and particulate emissions control from stationary engines and turbines

Tim J Benstead & Christoph M Heinisch, Johnson Mathey Catalysts

Ever tightening legislative controls on transport emissions mean that the relative impact of air pollution from stationary sources such as chemical plants, industrial processes and heat and power generation applications, is now more significant than ever.

The exhaust from stationary reciprocating engines and gas turbines contains a cocktail of harmful gaseous pollutants including carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and hazardous air pollutants (HAP).  Together with emissions of particulate matter (PM), if not controlled, they can lead to major health problems and contribute significantly to climate change and environmental pollution.

Today, a veritable toolbox of pre- and post-treatment techniques is available to engine designers and engineers to control emissions from stationary engines and turbines.  With a proven track record of reliability and success, catalytic and filter-based after-treatment technologies represent one of the practical and most cost-effective options.

This paper profiles a number of case studies illustrating the range of state-of-the-art catalyst and filter-based technologies available to engineers and environmental managers to control NOx, PM, CO and/or HC present in the exhaust of gas turbines and stationary internal combustion engines.

Volume 11 Issue 5 (December 2007) – Paper 561

The use of biomass derived fast pyrolysis liquids in power generation:  engines and turbines

Cordner Peacocke, Conversion & Resource Evaluation Ltd

Power production from biomass derived pyrolysis liquids has been under development for over 15 years. If technically successful, it would make decentralised bio-energy production possible. Several technologies and system components have been developed by academia, R&D organisations, and industrial companies in many countries. Considerable experience has been gained and many useful results published, however there is still a lack of long term operational experience.  The present work aims at reviewing the most significant experience in power generation from biomass liquids produced by fast pyrolysis processes.  Power plant technologies addressed are: diesel engines, gas turbines, and natural gas/steam power plants and the main results are reviewed with further R&D needs identified. The analysis shows that even for the most promising solutions long-term demonstration has not yet been achieved.  Pyrolysis liquids used in gas turbine plants and in co-firing mode in large power stations are technically most advanced.  Recent work with diesel engines also appears quite promising and further development in this area is required.

Volume 11 Issue 4 (September 2007) – Paper 560

The development of the TD2010 engine concept

R A Bickerton, Deutz UK

The industrial diesel engine manufacturing company of Deutz AG identified the need to expand its range into smaller displacement engines.  To further this strategy the company purchased the Technical Centre and new small engine range from the administrators of Lister Petter Ltd in 2004.  These engines were designated the Deutz (T)D2009 and D2008 range of engines. To further expand this range of engines, Deutz UK were requested to consider the design of a larger version of this family.

This new engine was to be designated the TD2010.  The engine was to share the (T)D2009 and D2008 engine concepts and hence complete the engine “family”.

Volume 11 Issue 3 (June 2007)

Emergency diesel standby generator’s potential contribution to dealing with renewable energy sources intermittency and variability

David Andrews, Wessex Water

Wessex Water has about 4.5 MW of continuously operating biogas CHP generation capacity.  This is provided by spark ignited gas engines.  It also has about 32 emergency standby diesel engines, totally 18 MW whose primary function is to power essential services – sewage works and water supply works during power failures.  They are also used in a number of ways, which is called collectively Load Management, and which includes routinely supporting the National Grid.  These generators have a 4 minute start up and paralleling capability, and are currently being modified to enable start ups in less than one minute.

Volume 11 Issue 2 (August 2007) Operational Report – Paper 557

Operational Report – Stationery engines, gas engines and gas turbines with alternative technology interfaces 2007

John Blowes & members of the Operational Report Committee

Volume 11 Issue 1 (February 2007) – Paper 555

Modern engine control systems for common rail engines, gas engines and dual fuel engines

Rob S Arends, Woodward Europe Controls & Fuel Injection Equipment

Due to recent emission legislation and the current increase in oil price on the world market as a result of the energy demand, gaseous fuels are becoming more and more a valuable source to produce power.  Within the OEM market of medium bore engine builders a series of developments is ongoing to either develop a dual fuel application or create a propulsion version out of a land based Spark Ignited gas engine.

Dual fuel application within the range of 30 to 60cm bore are seen in the LNG tanker market and are strongly upcoming in the electric power generation, both new and as retrofit package.

Volume 10 Issue 5 (December 2006) – Paper 554

Experiences of Peterborough Power Station during 2005 overhaul

Ken Henderson, Centrica Energy

This paper is intended to give an insight into the work carried out during the Major Overhaul at Peterborough Power Station.  Its main focus will be the work carried out on the two Frame 9E Gas Turbines but will also touch on some of the other work undertaken during this period.

Volume 10 Issue 4 (September 2006) – Paper 553

Utilisation of low BTU gases in spark ignition reciprocating engines – requirements and experiences

Martin Schneider, GE Energy - Jenbacher Gas Engines

Increased ecological consciousness and the knowledge of limited reserves of primary energy in the form of fossil fuels make it necessary to utilise available energy sources economically.  Cogeneration plants with gas engines produce electricity and heat at decentralised locations, where they are required.  They offer optimal efficiency in the utilisation of energy with minimum environmental burden.

Gas engines are presently powered primarily with natural gas, biogas or propane.  The use of “special gases” like producer gases, coke gas, pyrolysis gas or gas from gasification processes gas with low calorific values or changing gas compositions with respect to emission limits of the common air quality requirements is a new challenge for gas engine development.  Highly sophisticated gas engines with intelligent engine management systems now allow the utilisation of gases, which could not be burned a few years ago. Jenbacher AG has already installed cogeneration plants running with coke gas (55% H2 content), pyrolysis gas from domestic waste gasification (35% H2 content), gas from wood chip gasifier and producer gas from the chemical industry with an extreme low heating value (0.5 kWh/m3).

These experiences have shown that the gases from gasifier or pyrolysis gas from waste can be used in gas engines, as long as the gas fulfils certain requirements.

Volume 10 Issue 3 (June 2006) – Paper 552

Power Management Systems in gas turbine power stations

Roger Haycock, Freelance Engineer & Consultant

Two power management systems (PMS) that have been retrofitted in gas turbine power stations will be reviewed.  The addition of a PMS to an existing power station will improve reliability, reduce ‘blackouts’ and eliminate many of the operator’s mundane tasks.  The paper will also review the main features of a PMS explaining how it can be implemented in hardware and software.  The basic logics are independent of the hardware platform, which can be chosen to be similar to existing control systems in the plant.

Volume 10 Issue 2 (May 2006) – Working Cost and Operational Report – Paper 551

Working Cost and Operational Report – Stationary Engines and Gas Turbines 2006

John Blowes & members of the Working Cost Committee

Volume 10 Issue 1 (February 2006) – Paper 550

An Emerging Technology – Performance and Condition Monitoring of Diesel Engines and Gas Turbines via Acoustic Emission Measurements

Ryan M Douglas, Heriot-Watt University

Demand for condition monitoring of diesel engines and gas turbines has advanced at a rapid pace in recent years.  Stimulated by the continual drive for improved performance, be it for mechanical, economic, safety or environmental reasons, operational safety margins have diminished and in some cases have been replaced by a delicate balance between optimal operation and damaging conditions.  Consequently, the need for monitoring and for better-quality diagnostic information has increased.  This has initiated the development of a number of new monitoring techniques.  One of the most promising, Acoustic Emission (AE) analysis, is the topic of this paper.

This work describes the novel use of AE measurements to provide information pertaining to the running condition of diesel engines and to a lesser extent, gas turbines.  For diesel engine applications an AE sensor placed on the external engine surface is shown to reveal detailed information regarding engine events such as fuel injection and valve activity.  Most promisingly the ability to offer non-intrusive monitoring of the critical piston ring/cylinder liner interface is described, a process that has traditionally been difficult to inspect in-situ and one which poses significant problems for marine diesels.

The findings regarding the ring/liner interface are established through testing on large, 2-stroke marine diesels and small HSDI engines.  For the large engines, AE is shown to be sensitive to the cyclic fluctuation of in-cylinder pressure and to a variation of lubricating condition.  Regarding HSDI engines, AE is proposed to arise as a result of boundary friction and/or hydrodynamic lubrication.  Encouraging studies have also been conducted on a gas turbine where AE has shown to be responsive to variations in the machine operation, including induced blade damage.

Volume 10 Issue 1 (February 2006)

Applications and Cost Effectiveness of Micro-Gas Turbines

Andy Leach, Renewable Power Systems Ltd

Microturbines are an exciting new product offering advantages for small-scale chp and the utilisation of biogases for electricity and heat production.  They have low emissions of NOx and CO, low noise and vibration, reliable operation with minimal maintenance and small module size.  The performance of microturbines is shown to be successful on natural gas, landfill gas and sewage gas.  Natural gas fired units have achieved high availabilities with lower operating costs than comparable reciprocating engines.  Units have been developed for biogas applications with five now operating and the lead units now up to in excess of 7,500 hours.  Although availability on these is slightly reduced due to problems with the gas fuel metering valves, the major components (combustion chamber, turbine and recuperator) have shown no sign of corrosion, erosion or deposits build up.  Microturbines have a higher capital cost but lower operating cost than comparably sized reciprocating engines.  Installation costs can be lower for microturbines and their low weight, noise and vibration permit a wider choice of options.  Selection of technology needs to be made following a proper assessment of full installation and lifetime costs for a particular site.

Volume 9 Issue 5 (December 2005) – Paper 549

The Ecotran Rotating Gasifier – Generating Power from Waste

Peter Stain, Ecotran Energy Ltd

The Ecotran Gasification process is designed to gasify waste fuel in an environmentally friendly manner.  The system converts the waste in a rotating gasifier to produce a quality pyrolysis gas that can then be used to fuel either a reciprocating gas engine or a gas turbine for the generation of electricity.

Either dry or wet waste fuel is delivered to the plant.  If the fuel is wet, it may be discharged into a centrifuge-drying unit where the free water is removed to a liquid effluent system.  The fuel passes via the conveying system to the dryer where it is dried inside a heated dryer tube where heat evaporates off the moisture.  The dried fuel is then conveyed to the dry fuel hopper.  The fuel is then fed via an elaborate feed system, to avoid the ingress of air, into the gasifier where it is heated to separate the gas (methane) from the solid (char).  The gas is cooled in the gas quench unit where it is also cleaned.  The gas is then used to fuel a gas engine to generate electricity.  The formation of hydrogen is minimised by Ecotran’s unique patented design.

Unlike other systems the Ecotran system used the char (fuel with the gas removed) to heat the gasifier and not the gas produced.  The char is cooled then fed by a screw conveyor to a small grinder where the char is ground into a powder and stored in a hopper.  Oils and tars that are carried over with the gas are removed by a quench system and oil separator and stored in a storage vessel.  From storage the oils are used as a fuel along with char via burners to fuel the secondary converter.

Waste heat from the gasifier and, if required the waste heat from the gas engine, is used to provide steam energy to support the fuel drying and cooking ovens, buildings etc.

The current Ecotran design is capable of handling 0.5 tonnes per hour of dry fuel with a wide range of waste materials and these can typically produce up to 0.77MW electrical power.  Designs are available for plants of 0.5 t/h, 1.0 t/h, 2.5 t/h, 5 t/h and to handle up to 10 t/h dry waste material into the gasifier.

Volume 9 Issue 4 (September 2005) – Paper 548

Developing a secure power supply for an island community

Jim Crombie, IOM

This paper looks at the process and reasoning by which decisions on energy supply were taken.  It is in two parts; firstly describing the historical context and circumstance that initiated the need for additional energy supplied, followed by a description of the newest plant provided to meet that need.

Volume 9 Issue 4 (September 2005) – Paper 547

The Development of the High Speed Industrial Diesel Engine

Ron Bickerton, Independent Consultant

This paper is aimed at introducing the design, application and testing techniques used to develop the modern high speed diesel engine.  The paper will compare and contrast the engine types, technologies and development techniques between the large engine and its smaller high speed cousin.  It is hoped that the paper will provide an insight into the challenges faced by the design and development of the modern high speed industrial engines and where possible that will be directly contrasted with the author’s experience in the large engine industry.

Volume 9 Issue 3 (June 2005) – Paper 546

Hydrogen, Heat and Power from Waste

Andy Brown, Progressive Energy Ltd

A move towards energy sustainability requires not just the utilisation of natural resources (such as wind, tide, solar and hydro), but also the exploiting of primary energy sources in ways which result in minimal or no addition to those mechanisms understood to lead to global warming in particular.  The options for this latter criterion are limited, especially in a nuclear-averse society and against the backdrop that the exploitation of new oil and gas fields is becoming increasingly expensive, and that worldwide, the reserves are rapidly decreasing.

Volume 9 Issue 3 (June 2005) – Paper 544

Aero-derivative Gas Turbines for Marine and Industrial Applications

Mick Parker, Rolls-Royce

Over the past 40 years the main driving force behind the development of the gas turbine has been in its application as an aircraft propulsion unit.  The large aero production base and the demand for more efficient engines justified the huge investment in technology necessary to develop the aero engine to its current state.  To maximise the benefit gained from the successful development of its aero gas turbines, Rolls-Royce applies the same technology into its Marine and Energy gas turbines.  The application of aero gas turbines is very diverse, thanks to its flexibility and high power density.  Gas turbines are now applied in various markets from civil and defence aerospace to marine propulsion, power generation in marine and energy applications and oil and gas pumping.  This paper describes the latest aero-derivative gas turbines developed by Rolls-Royce for the Marine and Energy sectors.

At the same time, there has been considerable focus on domestic waste, brought about by the realisation that landfill does not represent a responsible solution, either to resource use or to the prevention of the release of a number of the same gases that are being blamed for global warming.

An ideal solution to both of the above would be to utilise what domestic waste cannot effectively be recycled, to contribute to the primary energy deficit.  Mass burn incineration has been fulfilling this role for some years.  As a technology, it is efficient in reducing landfill (about 90% by volume and 75% by weight1), and also releases energy, the heat released being used to generate electricity, though at relatively low efficiency (about 20%2).  Incineration, however, is not able to substitute directly for transport fuels, and there are still residual concerns about some combustion products (such as dioxins) which makes the consenting of new facilities very difficult.

An alternative is to gasify the waste and produce hydrogen gas.  This technology produces less (or no) landfill, generates electricity at a higher efficiency (about 35% for a 100MW facility), offers a direct substitute for transport fuels, and produces none of the harmful combustion products ascribed to incineration plants.

This paper describes the waste gasification technology, the production of hydrogen, and its use as a substitute fuel in prime movers – internal combustion (spark ignition) engines and gas turbines and fuel cells.  It is based on a study that was commissioned to investigate the practicability of deriving hydrogen using energy from waste, initially by Gloucestershire Waste Action Trust (GWAT), whose work was taken over by The Recycling Consortium, funded by Cory Environmental under the Landfill Tax Credit Scheme.  Support has also been obtained from the Energy Saving Trust.

Volume 9 Issue 2 (May 2005) – Paper 545

Working Cost and Operational Report - Stationary Engines and Gas Turbines 2004

Compiled by W T Owen

Volume 9 Issue 1 (February 2005) – Paper 543

Gaz de France Energy:  The first LNG carrier of a new generation

Barend Thiijsen, Wartsila Raisio, Finland

For the past forty years, steam turbine installations have dominated propulsion and electric power generation onboard LNG carriers.  The ease with which these installations can utilise boil-off gas and their apparent reliability have kept them in a position that has long been lost to diesel engines in all other segments of the shipping industry.  Steam turbine installations are however not very efficient.  This has a negative impact on both the ship’s operating economy and its exhaust gas emissions.  Exactly these issues play an increasingly important role in LNG shipping today.

Initially encouraged by the latest developments in its gas engine technology, Wartsila started looking for more economic and environmentally friendly ways to power LNG carriers.  Machinery alternatives with two and four-stroke diesel, high-pressure gas-diesel and low-pressure dual-fuel engines, in mechanical and electric propulsion arrangements, with and without boil-off reliquification plants, were studied.  Dual-fuel-electric installations were found to be the most attractive alternative to steam turbine installations.

The first dual-fuel-electric carrier, Gaz de France Energy, will take to the sea later this year and two more dual-fuel-electric LNG carriers are on order.  Further orders for dual-fuel-electric LNG carriers are expected any time soon.

Volume 8 Issue 5 (December 2004) – Paper 542

Design and Development of the Rolls-Royce Bergen BV – G Lean Burn Gas Engine

Lars M Nerheim, Rolls-Royce Marine AS, Engines - Bergen

RR Bergen gas engine development goes back to 1984.  At that time, after careful evaluation of possible alternatives, the spark-ignited pre-chamber lean burn gas concept was selected as the most promising for high specific power, and with prospects of high efficiency and low emissions as well.  In 1990 RR Bergen introduced the KV – G type gas engine at 170kW per cyl/500mg NOx (at 5% 02)/40%kW per cyl/250mg NOx (at 5% 02)/43% efficiency.  Meanwhile, more than 300 KV-gas engines with a total output over 1,000MW are in operation.  Because the mean effective pressure of a spark ignited gas engine usually is knock-limited, the given operating parameters at the different customer sites pose definite restrictions to the attainable site performance.  Consequently an engine with a larger swept volume is an effective way to significantly increase available power within the limitations of the actual operating conditions.  Therefore, RR Bergen has introduced a significantly larger and more powerful engine, the new B35:40V – gas engine range of currently 4.5-8.5MW, in order to widen our power band.

Volume 8 Issue 4 (September 2004) – Paper 541

The Future for Liquid Biofuels

John McNeil, Sittingbourne Analytical Laboratory Ltd

Using renewable liquid biofuels on a large scale would help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and also make a valuable contribution towards providing diversity and security to energy supplies.  Liquid biofuels could be used for bother power generation and road transport, and biofuels that offer particular potential include animal fats, vegetable oils, used cooking oil, biodiesel and bioethanol.  All of these materials have physical characteristics similar to petroleum fuel oils and the liquid biofuels can be stored and shipped in much the same way as petroleum oils.  Animal fats and vegetable oils are particularly safe to handle because they have high flash points and are stable, inert, non-toxic materials.

All of the above mentioned liquid biofuels are capable of being burned by internal combustion engines, although some biofuels may require modified combustion conditions to burn efficiently.  For example, it has been established that animal fats and vegetable oils burn much more efficiently in a diesel engine if the combustion atmosphere is enriched with oxygen.

Given appropriate Government encouragement, biofuel production could be a very substantial industry.  For example, if 1Mha of arable land and 3Mha of marginal land were devoted to growing the feedstocks required to produce biofuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol, the biofuels could have a potential energy content of up to 650 PJ/year, enough to make a significant contribution towards the energy requirements of the country.  The processed biofuels could have a commercial value, excluding tax, of over £5 billion/year.

Substantial Government support would be required to encourage a thriving biofuel industry.  Biofuels cost more to produce than petroleum fuels and to be competitive the biofuels would require significant tax breaks, particularly when used as road fuels.  For example, the UK Government has proposed a road duty tax incentive of 20 pence/litre for both biodiesel and bioethanol, i.e. a fuel duty of 26 pence/litre instead of the 46 pence/litre duty currently imposed on petrol and diesel.  However, with a duty of 26 pence/litre neither biodiesel nor bioethanol would be competitive with conventional road fuels, and the proposed tax break is unlikely to be enough to encourage the substantial investment needed to develop a large biofuel industry.

Volume 8 Issue 4 (September 2004) – Paper 539

First Prototype of the high efficiency Isoengine

Mike Coney and Claus Linnemann of RWE Innogy & Kimihiko Sugiura and Takayuki Goto of Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding

For more than 10 years, Innogy (now RWE Innogy) has been developing a new type of high-efficiency reciprocating internal combustion engine – called the “isoengine”.  The engine has separate cylinders for compression and combustion and (when fully developed) is predicted to generate power at net electrical plant efficiencies of up to 60% with unit sizes in the range of about 3-20MWe.  A 3MW prototype isoengine was constructed and the first fuel was injected in October 2002.  In August 2003, a Partnership Agreement was signed between Innogy and Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding concerning future development and testing of the isoengine.  The present paper focuses on the novel aspects of the isoengine in comparison with medium-speed diesel engines.  In particular the design of the prototype engine and the novel combustion process are described.  Some early test results are also presented.

Volume 8 Issue 3 (June 2004) – Paper 538

Kipevu 2 Independent Power Project

Graham Dilliway, Power-Consult International Ltd

Power projects in the developing world are often plagued with major operational problems, and frequently there is a regular pattern to the reasons why.  While international aid agencies make significant contributions to economic growth in developing countries, through the construction of electrical infrastructure, aid packages are often tied to plant produced in an agency’s home country, and are often little more than industrial subsidies.  Additionally, parastatal utilities often purchase the very latest technology without carefully examining its service history, the availability of local operational skills and resources, and the cost of specialist support from plant manufacturers.

This problem was recognised in the 1980s when the World Bank Group reviewed their loans for electrical power projects.  The bank then published the wide-ranging Electric Power Utility Efficiency Study (EPUES) report, supported by seven of the major international aid agencies, including the UK ODA (now Department for International Development).

IPP schemes solved many of the problems that dogged aid package power plants, but have not been a universal panacea.  Many of the early schemes were negotiated during energy crises, and the resultant PPAs were often highly disadvantageous to the purchaser.  In addition, the majority of IPP schemes are financed in US dollars, and the power purchaser and ultimately the consumers have to bear the impact of exchange rate fluctuations.

Some 15 years after EPUES publication, IPP schemes have matured.  Significant adjustments by power producers and power purchases have enabled both sides to achieve value for money, given the right technology, fuel, operating resources, training and contractual framework.

Kipevu 2 Independent Power Project in Mombasa, Kenya, is such a scheme.

Volume 8 Issue 3 (June 2004) - Historic Paper (S234)

Operating experience with gas turbines with particular reference to Beznau Power Station

E A Kerez

This paper deals with operating experience with a number of Brown Boveri Gas Turbines in industrial service, particularly those installed at Beznau Power Station, the largest plant of its kind so far built, belonging to the North Eastern Swiss Power Supply Company (NOK) which plant includes two units, one of 13,000kW and one of 27,000kW.  Reference is also made to a 5,400kW gas turbine set running at the ARBED Steel Works as Duelange (Luxemburg) as well as to the three sets installed at a Cement Mill in Pertigalete in Venezuela.

Volume 8 Issue 2 (May 2004) Working Cost and Operational Report – Paper 540  

Working Cost and Operational Report – Stationary Engines and Gas Turbines 2003

Compiled by W T Owen

Volume 8 Issue 2 (May 2004) - Historic Paper 58

Report on Heavy-Oil Engine Working Costs (1922-23)

Volume 8 Issue 1 (February 2004) – Paper 537

Development of MAN B&W RK280, the most powerful 1,000 rpm engine in the world

Dr E R Karimi, MAN B&W Diesel Ltd

MAN B&W Diesel Ltd is introducing the most powerful 1,000 rpm engine in the world for fast ferry, marine and industrial applications.  The design utilises the operational experience gained on the successful RK270 engine, which has a world leading position in the large fast ferry market.  The clean sheet design incorporates many improvements over existing engines including electronic fuel injection, underslung crankcase, rigid modular camshaft, single gear train and built-on ancillaries.

The most significant change in the engine has been the way it was designed utilising industry best practice concurrent engineering techniques, 3D modelling, predictive engineering, design reviews, risk analysis and multi-disciplinary team work in an environment of tight project management.

Three configurations of the engine, 12, 16 and 20 cylinders will be released to the market during 2003, at 450kW/cylinder plus 10% overload and after successful running of the first engines in service; the full release rating of the 20RK280 will be 10MW.

Volume 8 Issue 1 (February 2004) – Historic Paper 

The function of the Heavy Oil Engine in connection with the General Supply of Electricity

Volume 7 Issue 5 (December 2003) – Paper 536

Distillate fuel FOCUS

Norman Pearce, Alfa Laval

The face of power generation has changed significantly during the last twenty years.  There are greater demands to protect the environment and a greater desire to optimise operating profits through high reliability and availability of plant.

In the UK, and many other parts of the world, natural gas has replaced coal as the main power generation fuel.  It is readily available in most countries and is seen as the most environmentally friendly of the fossil fuels.

Privatisation and advances in gas turbine and combined cycle technology have made the gas turbine the preferred power generator for power stations of 100MW and upwards.

But as security of plant operation is paramount, distillate fuel oil is normally available as a back-up fuel.  Back-up fuel often takes a low priority on the power station, but is this the right approach as availability is so important?  Can the operator be sure the fuel is in a usable condition?  In short the answer is no!

This paper addresses the problems that poor fuel quality management can present to operators and provides a new solution for economically maintaining good quality clean fuel.

Volume 7 Issue 5 (December 2003) – Historic Paper

The Recovery of Lubricating Oil

Alfred J Wilson

Volume 7 Issue 4 (September 2003) – Paper 535

The Cummins QSK78 Heavy Duty Engine

Robin J Bremmer, Cummins Engine Company Ltd & Hirofuni Kizawa, Industrial Power Alliance

A new heavy duty 18 cylinder, vee configuration, 77.6 litre displacement diesel engine producing 2,610kWm (3,500bhp) at 1,900rpm has been designed and developed by the Industrial Power Alliance and introduced into production by Cummins Inc.  The Industrial Power Alliance is a joint-venture company established by Komatsu Ltd, a Japanese manufacturer of construction equipment and engines and Cummins Inc., a world leader in diesel engine manufacturing.  The engine is a hybrid of the Komatsu six cylinder, inline configuration, 23 litre (170mm bore) 6D170-3 engine and the Cummins 16 cylinder, vee configuration, 60 litre (190mm stroke) QSK60 engine.  The engine has been designed and developed for the new “Ultra-Class” haul trucks and other large mining equipment where more engine power combined with proven reliability and durability is a key requirement.  The engine also provides vehicle operators with a “clean” solution including low emissions and effective lubrication systems to assist them in managing their local environments.

Volume 7 Issue 4 (September 2003) – Historic Paper 60

Electricity Supply in War Time, as effected by the improvements in Heavy-Oil Engines

A H Dykes & W T Townend

Volume 7 Issue 3 (July 2003) – Paper 533

Safety at Gas Turbine Power Applications

Roger C Santon, Health & Safety Executive

Gas turbine plants driven power plants have become larger and more popular in recent years.  Many are based on gas turbines within acoustic enclosures.  Complex high-pressure fuel supply pipework to the turbines gives rise to an explosion hazard within the enclosures in the event of foreseeable small leaks if appropriate ventilation is not provided.  Health and Safety Executive (HSE) investigations exposed poor ventilation in some cases.  The paper describes the investigations, with reference to incident data, ignition probability, and ventilation performance modelling by computational fluid dynamics.  A criterion for the evaluation of existing and new plant is reviewed with particular reference to the ATEX Directives.  The paper describes specifically the application of demonstrably effective dilution ventilation as a basis of safety.  It describes the development and progress of the new ISO safety standard and an extensive industry funded research project, both aimed to give further guidance and basis of legal compliance.  Its scope includes micro-turbines as well as industrial and aero-derivative machines and the revision of current UK guidance.

Volume 7 Issue 3 (July 2003) – Historic Paper S218

Operating Experience with a 750kW Gas Turbine

G B R Feilden

This paper concentrates on the practical aspects of operation on the basis of experience gained during the first twelve months of endurance running of the Ruston and Hornsby 750kW gas turbine.  The plant is the first prototype of a production industrial gas turbine to be tested in Great Britain.

Volume 7 Issue 2 (May 2003) Working Cost and Operational Report – Paper 534

Working Cost and Operational Report - Stationery Engines and Gas Turbines 2002

Compiled by J H Blowes

Volume 7 Issue 1 (January 2003) – Paper 532

Design and development of the new Rolls-Royce Bergen C engine series

Lars M Nerheim, Rolls-Royce Marine A/S

Traditionally, Bergen has been producing auxiliary engines for the merchant fleets – practical and reliable engines which were simple to operate and service, but still of a flexible design which also made them suitable for smaller propulsion duties in our local areas.  Later they were also successfully developed for the new oil and gas industry.

This has resulted in a concentration on engines of mainly 250mm bore since the “R” engine of the early 50s, and these have been steadily developed and renewed through the “L” type and “K” type up till the currently time.

In 1997 the decision was taken to start the development of a new engine platform at Rolls-Royce Engines Bergen (the “C” Engine Project).

Volume 6 Issue 6 (November 2002) – Paper 531

The Turbec Microturbine from Prototype to Commercial Product

S Ernebrant, Turbec

Deregulation of the power industry and a demand for lower emissions are fuelling a move toward small-scale energy solutions based on natural gas.  Microturbine technology is well suited to meet the emerging need for reliable, flexible decentralised power production that offers a short term payback.

Turbec AB, a Swedish manufacturer with roots in the power generation and the automotive industries recently started delivering its first gas turbine product, the Turbec T100 CHP.  The T100 CHP is a 100 kWel combined heat and power solution based on a small, highly integrated turbine generator system.

Volume 6 Issue 5 (September 2002) – Paper 530

Caterpillar High Efficiency Engine Development G-CM34

Roy Toyne, MAN B&W Diesel Ltd, Regulateurs Europa

The demand for higher output gas engines for power generation and gas compression applications encouraged Caterpillar to extend the current gas engine program up to 6MW.  The result is a new large bore spark ignited gas engine with high efficiency and low emission levels.

The basis of this development is the well proven robustly built HFO engine, the 16CM32.  This engine has the capability to withstand high mechanical loads and is designed to produce low thermal loading.  By increasing the bore diameter, the power reduction, compared to the diesel engine, was minimised with minimal changes to the engine frame.  All other gas specific components such as cylinder heads, pistons, liners and fuel system were redesigned.

To reach the targets of bmep, efficiency and low emissions, a spark-ignited pre-chamber system was developed using individually electronically controlled gas admission valves at each cylinder.  In addition, the electronic engine management system included cylinder selective detonation control.

In the autumn of 1998 the first prototype G-CM34 engine started at the test bed in Kiel and reached the ambitious program targets in a very short time.  The use of Caterpillar’s extensive gas engine experience at the design stage and development phase was the key component to meeting the predicted values and to reducing the developing time for this new product.

This paper reports the salient points of the G-CM34 development project, from the concept phase through to prototype testing and to the first plant installations.

This paper is based on a presentation at the 2nd Dessau Gas Engine Conference, June 2001.

Volume 6 Issue 4 (July 2002) – Paper 529

Wartsila 64 The biggest and the most powerful four-stroke diesel engine

P Tonon, Wartsila Italia SpA

Ship size has increased in the past years and consequently so has the demand for more powerful engines.

The Wartsila 64 with its 2MW power per cylinder and 640mm bore is the world’s largest medium speed engine ever built.  The 6 to 18 cylinder configuration covers power output from 12,060 up to 34,920kW.  In this power range 200 to 280 ships are delivered yearly equipped with 2 stroke main propulsion engines.

Volume 6 Issue 3 (June 2002) Working Cost and Operational Report – Paper 528

Working Cost and Operational Report – Stationary Engines and Gas Turbines December 2001

Compiled by J H Blowes

Volume 6 Issue 2 (March 2002) – Paper 527

International Marine Exhaust Emission Legislation

A A Wright, American Bureau of Shipping

The adoption in 1997 by the MARPOL Diplomatic Conference of Annex VI to the MARPOL Convention will, on ratification, extend this range of controls to limiting the air pollution from ships.  A major part of these controls, both in terms of their detail and impact on the marine industry, will be in respect of the exhaust emission limits to be introduced.  At this time, these exhaust emission controls will cover NOx emissions from diesel engines and SOx emissions from all types of combustion machinery.  In addition, there are also controls covering certain oil fuel quality matters.  In the case of the NOx controls, these are already having a significant effect on the engine design and certification process.  In contrast, the SOx controls will be largely operation based.  However, even with these, and to some extent the oil fuel quality controls, there are actions to be taken over the period prior to the entry into force of the Annex in order to ensure future compliance.

This paper gives a detailed overview of these exhaust emission requirements and how they will function within the overall ship certification process which will be required by the Annex.

Volume 6 Issue 1 (January 2002) – Paper 526

Remote Monitoring of Large Diesel Engines

Roy Toyne, MAN B&W Diesel Ltd, Regulateurs Europa

Since the early days of any machinery, that was powered by anything other than man, there has been seen the need to monitor its operation.  From the author’s observations of man’s early attempts at powered machinery, it was more than justified.

Monitoring generally consisted of a man with a good set of eyes and ears.  Later we added the clipboard and the checklist or chart and, I guess the term Watchkeeper had a very literal meaning.  The objective has always been to see that the machine is functioning correctly and to try to intercept problems before they became serious, either to the machine or anyone in the vicinity.  As we have become more conscious of cost and safety issues so these basic needs have become more prominent.

Engines and specifically large diesel engines have come a long way since their beginnings and the level of reliability that we expect and receive from them would have been unheard of 50 years ago.  Materials, surface finishes, lubricants and the use of sophisticated design techniques have all worked together to achieve this.  However, as the means to achieve reliability have moved forward, so have the expectations of increased power and reduced size and weight.  There are many engines that spend their life operating very close to their maximum speed and power ratings.  So despite the advances in reliability it would be a brave or possibly foolish operator who decided that he did not need to monitor the operation of his engine.

As the engine technology has advanced so have monitoring techniques.  The big revolution came with the introduction of digital techniques and the all encompassing PC.

Thus to the title of the paper: remote monitoring.  If we cannot dispense with the man or woman to interpret the data, we can at least put that person into an office environment and allow them to monitor a number of engines.  We can present the data in a user-friendly form and we can give the engineer a wealth of data to help in the assessment.

Volume 5 Issue 5 (October 2001) – Paper 525

Gas Turbines and Spark Ignition Gas Engines for industrial CHP

Charles C Heap, CCH Consulting

Gas turbines are widely accepted as prime-movers for industrial CHP; spark ignition gas engines are a relatively recent innovation in this market sector; application of gas engines is often misunderstood (even by consultants!).  This paper seeks to highlight some of these misunderstandings.

Volume 5 Issue 5 (October 2001) – Paper 524

Oil Mist Detection as an aid to monitoring engine condition

Brian J Smith, QMI Ltd

As diesel engines become progressively more efficient by burning fuel more effectively, the only remaining significant potential for operational cost saving to be exploited is to introduce features to ensure that unnecessary maintenance is reduced.  Owners and operators of diesel power plants are increasingly seeking ways to replace preventive maintenance schedules based on operational hours by on-condition maintenance programmes that confine maintenance to the actual needs of the engine.  Such a philosophy requires appropriate use of accurate health and condition monitoring equipment that not only tracks critical performance parameters, but also provides suitable protection against more serious damage being inflicted due to incipient seizures.  Oil Mist Detectors are an important component part of this changing philosophy.

Volume 5 Issue 4 (July 2001) – Paper 523

A Sustainable Energy Strategy for Wessex Water

David Andrews, Wessex Water

This paper puts forward some thoughts towards a Sustainable Energy Strategy (SES) for Wessex Water.  The paper first discusses possible criteria for sustainability as they apply to energy strategy.  It then proceeds to describe the activities of the Wessex Energy Team and the energy options that the company could explore in the pursuit of a sustainable strategy.

Volume 5 Issue 3 (June 2001) Working Cost and Operational Report – Paper 522

Working Cost and Operational Report – Stationary Engines and Gas Turbines 2000

Compiled by J H Blowes

Volume 5 Issue 2 (April 2001) – Paper 521

Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration and Catalytic NOx Reduction Augmented with Heat Recovery and Active Hydrocarbon Injection

Krishnan Balakrishna, Marc D Rumminger, Dave T Eveland & Bradley L Edgar, Ceryx Inc

Understanding particulate filter regeneration and lean NOx catalysis is important for the design and operation of a diesel exhaust after treatment system that can simultaneously reduce NOx, PM, HC and CO.

The experimental data presented includes soot loading and unloading (filter regeneration) curves from tests conducted on the dynamometer under several different conditions.  A comparison is made between the performance of uncatalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and catalyzed DPFs based on the rate of soot loading and burnoff.  The effect of cell density on the performance of the DPFs is discussed.  Filter regenerations have been carried out both by burnoff at high load conditions and by fuel-assisted burnoff via the injection of fuel upstream of the filter.  Comparisons were made between two modes of introducing supplementary fuel (with and without air assist). NOx conversion data for typical lean NOx catalysts are presented.  Supplementary fuel injection is employed for NOx reduction and also for providing the high temperatures for filter regeneration.

Experimental results indicate that the catalyzed DPFs regenerate at a much faster rate than the uncatalyzed DPFs at the same engine exhaust conditions.  DPF regeneration was demonstrated by generating an exotherm via the oxidation of supplementary hydrocarbons.  It was found that supplementary fuel injection also helped to increase the conversion of NOx within the operating windows of lean NOx catalysts (LNCs).

Volume 5 Issue 2 (April 2001) – Paper CP001

Treating Fuels in the New Millennium

Richard Kelly, Alfa Laval Ltd

The quality of marine bunkers has over the past 25 years influenced the development of cleaning systems dramatically and contributed largely to the establishment of fuel oil quality standards.  Amongst other things, these have assisted the user and equipment manufacturer in operation and product development issues respectively.  This paper deals with the most significant developments in the cleaning of these heavy fuels by centrifugal separation and addresses the potential fuel-related problems, which the cleaning system must try to counteract.

Volume 5 Issue 1 (January 2001) – Paper 520

Economic Considerations of Power Plant Refurbishment versus New Build

J H Blowes, Diesel Consult

The only way to assess economics and risks is to fully understand the options.  

Consider the starting points:

 Green field site, new building and modern equipment – all compatible and following well-established procedures for installation and commissioning.

 Existing building and facilities.  Proven equipment in need of overhaul.

 Green field site utilising refurbished equipment.

It is of course necessary to quantify the extent of refurbishment that in turn has a very significant bearing on the refurbishment approach and cost.

Volume 5 Issue 1 (January 2001)

The Challenges to Supplier and User in the Coming Decade (Ship Propulsion Systems Conference 2000)

D A Gillespie, IPowerE

The challenges to the suppliers of marine propulsion systems in the coming decade from the perspective of an individual company should in many respects be no different to the challenges that existed in the past.  Today however there is an added dimension that arises directly from the rate at which new technology is being developed and applied.

Company survival essentially depends on possessing a product, or a range of products, that is sought by the targeted market.  Market demand alone will not guarantee success however, as in a competitive environment, this will largely depend on high market share and sustainable growth, which in turn are highly dependent on the product satisfying the current and perceived future requirements of the market-place, in terms of price, delivery, performance, reliability and cost of ownership characteristics.

Volume 4 Issue 5 (October 2000) - Paper 519

The H.A.M. (Humid Air Motor) System:  A simple way to reduce NOx emissions in diesel engines of all sizes

L-O Olsson, Munters Euroform GmbH

The evolution of the diesel engine faces great obstacles and challenges with regard to the creation of environmentally friendly designs.  One of the major drawbacks of the modern diesel engine is its high emission of NOx.  Unfortunately, measures aimed at decreasing NOx emissions in diesel engines will almost always conflict with high efficiency.

Volume 4 Issue 5 (October 2000) – Paper 518

Diesel Engines and Gas Turbines in Cruise Vessel Propulsion

H W Koehler, MAN B&W Diesel

The Celebrity Cruises’ gas turbine-driven cruising vessel Millennium made her maiden voyage this summer.  The 91,000 gt vessel with a passenger capacity of 1,950 (lower berth) denotes a technological shift in cruise ship design, primarily because she is the first cruise ship powered by a pure gas turbine plant.  Apart from this, the ship has the biggest azimuthing pods ever built (two Mermaid pods of 19.5MW each).  Currently there are three further cruise ships of this series under construction.

Volume 4 Issue 5 (October 2000)

Anatomy of a Modern Diesel Engine, Part 3

G Murray

The last two articles in this series for students and practical engineers discussed basic engine performance parameters, the engine frame, pistons and connecting rods.  This article touches upon the design and performance of the fuel injection equipment; the pumps, pipes, injectors, nozzles and fuel cams that are essential for efficient engine operation.

Volume 4 Issue 4 (July 2000) – Paper 517

Managing Lubricating Oils in Service to Optimise Life and Minimise Cost

J A Platt, Castrol UK Ltd

In a business where efficiency is the keyword and the drive for ultimate performance unrelenting, stresses on lubricants are ever greater.  More severe operating conditions demand higher specification products inevitably resulting in increased lubricant cost.  This coupled with higher disposal tariffs and stricter environmental controls makes it ever more important to make oil last longer.  But the cost of replacing and disposing of lubricant is often small compared with the associated cost of machine downtime and lost output involved in carrying out an oil change, or even worse, in repairing plant which has failed without warning.  Nowhere is this more critical than in today's highly competitive power generation industry.

Correctly applied, Oil Condition Monitoring (OCM), can be an effective tool not only in optimising oil change intervals, without compromising the protection of plant and equipment, but also in the early detection of impending problems allowing timely corrective action to be taken thereby reducing maintenance and replacement costs and minimising unplanned downtime resulting in lower overall operating costs.

Volume 4 Issue 4 (July 2000)

Anatomy of a Modern Diesel Engine, Part 2

G Murray

Pistons - The piston is one of the most critical components of a diesel engine.  It must transmit gas forces to the connecting rod, support the piston rings and guide the small end assembly within the bore.  It must survive under conditions of boundary lubrication and it is attacked by heat, acidic and ash laden gases under varying pressures.

Volume 4 Issue 3 (June 2000) Working Cost & Operational Report – Paper 516

Working Cost & Operational Report Stationary Engines and Gas Turbines 1999

Compiled by J H Blowes

Volume 4 Issue 2 (April 2000) – Paper 515

Four Stroke Marine Diesel Engines

G P Baecker, MaK (London) Ltd

When in 1992 MaK introduced the new M20 engine with a power range from 900kW to 1,710kW at 900 to 1,000rpm it was the result of an intense internal evaluation process.  From the beginning the following targets were set:

1. The design should be transferable

2. To allow production in Europe

3. Ease of maintenance

4. In-house production

5. IMO exhaust gas regulation

Volume 4 Issue 2 (April 2000)

Anatomy of a Modern Diesel Engine, Part 1

G Murray

What influences component design and why are particular materials important?  George Murray explores the anatomy of the diesel and suggests some possible answers.

Volume 4 Issue 1 (January 2000) – Paper 514

Application of Computer Systems in the improvement of Power Generation Operation and Maintenance Management

R J Hunt, Power + Energy Associates

In almost every region of the world advances in technology, deregulation of markets, privatisation and liberalisation have had an astounding effect on the management of power plant operations and maintenance.  These changes have produced a growing need for power plants to use the best available technology and computer systems in the improvement of operations and maintenance of power generation facilities, i.e. Computer Management Systems.

Volume 3 Issue 5 (October 1999) – Paper 513

New, Long Life, Self Cleaning Lube Oil Filtration for Diesel Engines

R Andrews, Cummins Engine Co

The role of the lube oil filter system on diesel engines is to protect critical engine components from harmful particles.  Maximum engine life is dependent on the proper use of an oil filter system designed for that engine.  This paper reviews a new low maintenance filtration system for use on diesel engines as designed by Alfa Laval Ltd and developed by Cummins Engine Co.  This new filter system, named Eliminator, is comprised of an integral full-flow and bypass filter.  The full-flow filtration is designed as a series of wire mesh disks which are continually back-flushed as a self-cleaning feature.  The bypass filtration consists of a highly effective centrifugal filter.

Volume 3 Issue 5 (October 1999) – Paper 512

The Industrial Trent Gas Turbine

J M Hutchinson, Rolls-Royce Industrial & Marine Gas Turbines

In the increasingly competitive market of distributed power, plant operators are becoming more demanding of equipment reliability, availability and cost of ownership. Against this backdrop Rolls-Royce launched the Industrial Trent, their latest aeroderivative gas turbine, into commercial operation.  This paper looks at the technology behind the Industrial Trent and how it has evolved from its aero counterpart.

Volume 3 Issue 4 (July 1999) – Paper 511

The Phased Development and Implementation of a Large Cogeneration Plant

S A Jameson, P R Gladhill & P Bayada, National Power

This paper examines the development of large-scale cogeneration plants in conjunction with host site developments.

It focuses on the issues surrounding the selection, installation and commissioning of key plant items such as the gas turbine, heat recovery steam generator, boiler and steam turbine.

Finally it considers the importance of integrating the new steam plant with an existing (expanding) system which has large variations in steam demand.

Volume 3 Issue 4 (July 1999)

Engine Designs

J H Blowes & D Gillespie

Diesel and gas engine capabilities have improved rapidly since this prime mover became commercially viable in the early 1900s.  Recognising the growing importance of this efficient form of power generation, a group of power station chief engineers founded the Diesel Users Association in 1913.  This Association is now The Institution of Diesel and Gas Turbine Engineers (IPowerE).

As industry became progressively more reliant on diesel and gas engines for driving factory machinery and for electric power generation, a range of problems were encountered during the early period of rapid growth, which were discussed within the forum of the Diesel Users Association.  This service feedback, incorporating valuable statistical data on operating experience, that is still collated and published today, has assisted engine makers and ancillary equipment suppliers over the years to refine their products and meet the demands of the market.

Volume 3 Issue 3 (June 1999) Working Cost & Operational Report – Paper 510

Working Cost & Operational Report Stationary Engines and Gas Turbines 1998

Compiled by J H Blowes

Volume 3 Issue 2 (April 1999) – Paper 509

Waste Heat to Water

N Pearce, Alfa Laval Ltd

Clean, high quality water is essential for reliable power plant operation and can be a significant extra cost if an adequate, reliable supply is not available.  Yet frequently diesels and gas turbine power systems are installed in remote locations where the only source of water is from sea, river or bore hole water.

The paper reviews the thermodynamics of desalination, and how greater utilisation of waster heat from power plants can provide high quality water for industrial and domestic consumption.

Volume 3 Issue 1 (January 1999) – Paper 508

Gasification of Refinery Residual Oil and Subsequent Generation of Electricity

J A G Brown, Progressive Energy & J Griffiths, Jacobs Engineering Ltd

The increasing pressures to achieve environmental improvement have required changes in almost every energy-related industry.  The petrochemical industry is no exception, with the specifications for power and transport fuels becoming much tighter.  However, this has left the refineries with a problem - larger amounts of heavy residual oil with a higher sulphur content.  Refineries have had to add increasing quantities of good quality "cutter stock" to sell it as "HFO" in power stations or in ships as "Bunker C" and even these are facing the prospect of tighter sulphur content controls.  Refinery margins are too small to pay for major clean-up investment and a new market for refinery waste has to be found.

Gasifying such residues has been commercially successful on a small scale for over 40 years and larger plants for total disposal can provide an alternative fuel for modern CCGTs.

This paper describes the nature of the refinery's problem, the gasification processes possible, and treatment of the gas to provide an ideal fuel.  Brief mention is made of the diverse feedstocks which can be used, including biomass, coal, Orimulsion®  and MSW.  Some current commercial projects are described, demonstrating that this technology is accepted worldwide.

Volume 3 Issue 1 (January 1999)

Biogas on the Farm

P Berridge, Ballyohannon Farms, Co Wexford, Ireland

Production of electrical power burning biogas is now an established procedure using a simple method of converting diesel engines without the complication of ignition coils and spark plugs.  (Converted petrol engines, having a much lower compression ratio, do not run efficiently.)

Volume 2 Issue 5 (October 1998) – Paper 507

The Diesel Gas Engine

Dr T A Bradshaw, Bradshaw Consultants

With the increased availability of gas and the requirement to minimise emissions, not only of noxious gases but also of carbon dioxide, has come a renewed interest in gas burning engines.

For large power demands the gas turbine is proving most attractive, particularly the very high efficiency aero derivative, but for smaller powers the reciprocating engine is still a preferred choice.  There are however an increasing number of alternative ways of burning gas in an engine, to include the gas diesel engines.  A brief description of each technology is provided with a suggestion for the direction that engine development may take.

Volume 2 Issue 5 (October 1998) – Paper 506

Stirling Engine Powered Micro Co-Generation

J Harrison, Sigma Elektroteknisk

Combined Heat and Power (CHP) has significant potential for the more efficient use of fossil fuels and the reduction of CO2 and other polluting emissions.  It also offers the possibility of reduced infrastructure requirements, (and consequent environmental impact) both in terms of large scale generators and the associated transmission and distribution facilities, by the nature of "embedded" generation.  Indeed, the evolution from central generating plant to distributed generation is seen by many as a natural response to environmental demands and to the commercial pressures imposed by an increasingly competitive market.

In the UK, economic considerations limit existing CHP technologies to the size range of 30kWe and above, although tax advantages make 15kWe (and even smaller) viable in some countries.  This is primarily due to the high unit maintenance and capital costs of equipment.  The internal combustion engines generally applied are of limited durability, reliability and efficiency and produce relatively high levels of noise and air pollution.

Stirling engines offer better energy efficiency and reliability, lower exhaust emission and noise levels.  They also permit a greater flexibility than internal combustion engines in the choice of fossil fuels and alternative renewable energy sources.  Stirling engines are potentially prime movers in CHP systems on the micro scale, operating effectively at outputs as low as 800We.

Volume 2 Issue 4 (July 1998) – Paper 505

Turbines & Reciprocating Engines Producing Power from Natural Gas Pressure Reductions in the Supply System

A Cleveland, Cleveland Eng Services Ltd & E A Wright, WFL Eng & Management Services Ltd

The authors have been involved over a number of years with promotion of the use of turbine and reciprocating engines as a means of recovering energy from the necessary pressure reductions which occur in natural gas transmission and distribution systems.  The paper reviews the thermodynamics involved, the types of machines which have been used with emphasis on a remarkably successful reciprocating machine and the economics of application.  The paper also considers the potential in the United Kingdom for expander generators and addresses the question as to why there are so many installations operating in continental Europe and not in the UK.

Volume 2 Issue 3 (June 1998) Working Cost and Operational Report – Paper 504

Working Cost and Operational Report - Stationary Engines and Gas Turbines 1997

Compiled by J H Blowes

Volume 2 Issue 2 (April 1998) – Paper 503

Large End Bearing Temperature Measurement Development, Testing and Application

N Catsaras, Mobil Shipping, A Devaux of SEMT Pielstick & F Laurent of CMR

For more than twenty years Controle Mesure Regulation (CMR) and Societe D'Etude des Moteurs Thermiques (SEMT) Pielstick have collaborated and gained great experience in the protection of main bearings on diesel engines.

In order to improve the monitoring of the crankshaft line, CMR developed a new temperature sensor for the large end bearings (TB2).  This sensor has been patented.  The paper describes the principle of this sensor and shows the possibility of measuring the temperature of rotating parts with the TB2.

In service examples of installations of the TB2 will be used to highlight the interest of this measuring equipment.  

A detailed description of a preliminary test carried out by SEMT Pielstick on a test bed engine will be shown to demonstrate the capabilities of the instrument and its performance.  Information is given on the temperature behaviour of the large end bearing with speed and load variations.

An account of a long term test by Mobil Shipping Co. is based on a three year trial on several in service engines.

Finally, reference is made to the rules edited by the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS), regarding the monitoring of all bearings of the moving parts of the engine, and the possibility of the TB2 satisfying these requirements.

Volume 2 Issue 1 (January 1998) – Paper 502

Producing Independent Power

J Hakola, Wartsila NSD

Several different parameters are used to measure the performance of the power unit.  Naturally the economical parameters are usually in the balance sheet, but on the non-economical side, the most commonly used parameters to follow the performance of the power units are availability, reliability and capacity factor.  Out of these, availability is the most commonly used, but that alone does not always give a true picture about the performance of the power unit.  This is the reason why the AFUP includes not only availability but also reliability, capacity factor and load factor.

Volume 2 Issue 1 (January 1998) – Paper 501

Re-Power with the Caterpillar 3600 HFO Generator Set

Mark Barnes, H Leverton Ltd

This paper describes the process of installation of a Caterpillar 3616 HFO generating set into an existing generation facility.  Whilst not a terribly difficult undertaking, the effort involved cannot be underestimated.

The opportunity arose in 1994 to perform this task at a wire factory located in the west of England.  The issues arising in the course of this undertaking are described in detail, together with a synopsis of early operational experience.

Volume 1 Issue 5 (October 1997) – Paper 500

Emission Control – Two-stroke Low Speed Diesel Engines

J O Hellmann & K Aabo, MAN B&W Diesel A/S

General awareness of environmental issues is increasing rapidly.  Diesel engine makers were first involved in questions regarding exhaust gas emissions in the field of stationary applications.

A study of the exhaust gas emissions from a diesel engine represents a challenge to both the engine designer and to makers of exhaust gas treatment equipment.  It is also a valuable tool for reaching a deeper understanding of the engine combustion process.  Such understanding has led to more serious treatment of environmental issues in connection with the design and application of diesel engines.

Anticipating this development, MAN B&W initiated studies of the emission characteristics of their engines some fifteen years ago.  These studies included work on finding techniques for reducing the exhaust gas emissions to comply with current as well as anticipated future rules.  The main focus has so far been on reducing the emission of nitrogen oxides, NOx.  As a result, we have already supplied emission control equipment for a number of ships and stationary plants.

Within the IMO (International Maritime Organisation) there are now discussions of emissions limitations in the form of air pollution at sea.  Authorities in various parts of the world are taking similar steps.  An example is the proposed EPA (US – Environmental Protection Agency) rules currently under discussion.  Proposals from both authorities are dealt with in the paper, and technologies designed to meet the proposals are discussed.  Furthermore, the World Bank has recently issued a proposal for environmental guidelines based on the IMO rules.

Volume 1 Issue 5 (October 1997)

Renewable Energy from Independent Power Producers

Geoff Scrivenor, ETSU

This paper provides an overview of how Renewable Energy Technologies have progressed in recent years, the part they play in a very diverse UK Electricity Supply Industry now nearly open to full competition, and the enablement mechanism currently in place to promote their uptake.  Consideration is given to their commercialisation and how effectively they are likely to compete alongside conventional power generation into the future.  Although environmentally friendly, the argument that “it’s a good thing” is unlikely to sustain a Renewable Energy industry and the technologies will ultimately need to be commercially and technically attractive for their survival in an industry where privatisation and competition have driven all costs in the supply chain steady downwards.

Volume 1 Issue 4 (July/August 1997) – Paper 499

Gas Turbine Condition Monitoring Systems – An Integrated Approach

Celia Fisher, Stewart Hughes Ltd

The capability of a condition monitoring system for effective monitoring of faults and incipient problems depends on the design and integration of the system as much as the sensors and signal analysis techniques used.  The first step is to define the requirement which can typically be summarised as follows:

1. reduce the number and severity of failure incidents between scheduled overhauls

2. improve the diagnostic and prognostic capability so that maintenance can be planned and will target the components wit incipient or development faults

3. enable the calculation of engine usage and prediction of remaining life

4. minimise consequential damage

5. achieve the above with the minimum sensor fit

Other, more ambitious targets include putting the engine on condition; and assessment of the long term effects of ingested materials or lower quality fuel on the engine life and performance.

The high plant availability and low maintenance cost requirements currently demanded by operators necessitate efficient, cost effective monitoring systems.

Volume 1 Issue 4 (July/August 1997)

The Nomination of Generators for Powering Non-Linear Loads

Simon Walton, Newage International Ltd

Non linear loads such as semi-conductor thyristor/rectifier loads generate harmonics in their current waveform which in turn leads to harmonic distortion of the supply voltage waveform.  Depending upon degree of harmonic voltage waveform distortion, this may lead to either instability of the generators excitation system or to the control system of the loads applied to the generator.

Most generators produced today can cope with quite high levels of waveform distortion without detrimental effect to themselves, however, most problems occur with electronic power device control equipment trying to synchronise with a distorted waveform.

Many questions have been asked regarding the application of generators for powering non-linear loads, therefore the main aim of this paper is to clarify the situation.

Volume 1 Issue 3 (June 1997) Working Cost and Operational Report – Paper 498

Working Cost and Operational Report – Stationary Engines and Gas Turbines 1996

Compiled by J H Blowes

Volume 1 Issue 2 (April 1997) – Paper 497

Design and Development of the 12VP185

J N Ramsden, Paxman Diesels Ltd

Design criteria are set out for a compact high-speed diesel engine aimed at achieving a wide market appeal and capable of addressing key targets of good fuel economy, low emissions, low through-life costs and economic manufacture and describes how these targets have been answered by innovative concepts in the design and development process.

Volume 1 Issue 2 (April 1997)

The Effective Operation of Modern CHP Plants

M Hooper, AHS Emstar

With the ever increasing demands to reduce energy costs, environmental emissions and increase plant efficiency, consideration must be given to the application of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) as an effective form of energy provision.

It is often thought, that conventional boiler plant and systems can be converted to an effective CHP scheme without incurring significant cost and disruption to services.  In some instances this is true however, it is important that in every case we must undertake a detailed site survey.  This will have the added benefit of giving a true and accurate proposal for such a scheme, it will in addition identify quickly and at minimum cost any areas that will counteract the successful implementation of CHP on site.

Volume 1 Issue 1 (January-February 1997) – Paper 496

Power Generation from Biogas

J H Blowes

The IPowerE made a significant contribution to a “Technical Survey of Power Generation from Biogas” commissioned via a main contractor by ETSU, the Energy Technology Support Unit, for the Department of Trade.

This forms part of the support provided by ETSU to promote cost effective use of non fossil fuels and advancement of knowledge, being shared objectives of the IPowerE.

The writer has utilised his own knowledge and experience, and that of other members who specialise in this field, to compile the IPowerE contribution – to include some additional notes.

The paper may therefore be used to provide an initial insight into the topics discussed, with a view to the reader then consulting specialists in the particular area of interest.

Volume 1 Issue 1 (January-February 1997)

A High Performance Hybrid Optical Current Transformer (Young Power Engineer’s Award 1996)

Charles N Yakum

Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution systems represent substantial investments for the electrical power supply industry, and so are customarily protected from faults through the use of relays and circuit breakers.  A current transformer (CT) for measuring electric currents at certain strategic points along the higher power systems has been an integral component, not only in such protective schemes, but also for metering purposes.  A conventional CT for these high voltage applications is inherently large and expensive due to electrical insulation requirements.  As electric power supply systems are increasingly operated close to optimum economic efficiency, the cost and limitations of the conventional CT become gain limiting factors.  Therefore for high efficiency gains, improved plant and system monitoring methods are required.  To maximise profit, such methods rely upon evolving the use of new technologies such as optical fibre based sensing systems.  An example of such a system which has been considered as offering significant benefits but has yet to be fully accepted commercially is an optical fibre current monitoring system for use on high voltage power lines and circuit breakers.